初中英语常识

范文1:初中英语音标基本常识

音素1、单元音:

2、双元音:

3、清、浊辅音:

2.元音

1)[i:] sea, he, see, piece, ceiling 2)[i] sit, build, miss, myth 3)[e] bed, desk, head,4)[ ] bad, land, bank, stamp

5)[a:] car, fast, class, plant, calm, aunt 6)[ ] hot, want

7)[ ] door, more, sport, ball, warm, author, court, bought, caught 8)[u:] good, who, blue, soup,9)[u] look, put, women, could 10)[ ] cup, come, blood, rough 11)[ ] girl, work, serve, nurse 12)[ ] cadre, ago, forget, polite, dollar, doctor, famous, Saturday

13)[ei] cake, they, play, eight, great,14)[ai] bike, die, neither, light, try, find, height, eye

15)[ ] phone, cold, boat, soul, grow 16)[au] house, town

17)[ ] boy, oil

18)[ ] dear, idea, deer, here, fierce,19)[ ] pear, care, there, fair 20)[ ] tour, poor,

3.容易混淆的元音

1)[e][] bed bad; men, man; pen, pan; lend land 2)[i:][ei] real rail; greet, great; mean, main; read raid

3)[e][AI] bet bite; red write; said side, head, hide

4)[au][ ] house horse; loud lord; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause 5)[au][ ] found fond; gown gone; down don

4.辅音1)[p] pen,2)[b] bed, comb 3)[t] tell,

4)[d], day, played, wanted

5)[k] cold, sky, quick, school, back, accept, box

6)[g] big, go, guess, language 7)[m] man

8)[n] nine, knife, autumn 9)[ ] bank, uncle, English, sing,10)[l] land, world 11)[r] read, write,12)[f] five, cough, laugh 13)[v] voice, of 14)[ ] think,15)[ ] this, bathe

16)[s] sit, miss, science, case, scarf 17)[z] zoo, close,

18)[ ] sure, she, social, nation

19)[ ] pleasure,20)[h] hot, who, hour 21)[w] wall, what, answer 22)[j] yes

23)[ ] child, teach, catch 24)[ ] joke, bridge,25)[ts] boats 26)[dz] goods 27)[tr] tree 28)[dr] dream

5.容易混淆的辅音

1)[v][w] vet wet; vest west; vine wine; very well

2)[s][ ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math

3)[z][ ] closing clothing; breeze breathe; bays bathes

4)[n][ ] thin thing; sin sing; ban bang win wing; ran rang

范文2:初中英语动词知识点

初中英语动词知识点:动态动词与静态动词

根据词义特点,动词可分为动态动词和静态动词。动态动词主要指动作动词,而静态动词则主要指表示情感、内心活动、感觉、相互关系等的动词:

He wrote some letters.他写了一些信。(write 为动态动词)

The girls are dancing.女孩子们在跳舞。(dance 为动态动词)

I think he is honest.我认为他是诚实的。(think 和is均为静态动词)

Everyone likes her.人人都喜欢她。(like 为静态动词)

有的动词既可用作静态动词也可用作动态动词,只是含义不同:

He has a lot of friends.他有许多朋友。(have为静态动词)

He is having supper.他在吃晚饭。(have为动态动词)

实义动词与非实义动词

根据其含义和句子功用,动词可分为实义动词和非实义动词(包括时态助动词和情态助动词等)。如:

He bought a story book.他买了一本故事书。(buy 为实义动词)

He has read the story book.他已读过这本故事书。(has 为时态助动词,read为实意动词)

He should read the story book.他应该读读这本故事书。(should 为情态助动词,red为实义动词)

初中英语动词知识点:及物动词与不及物动词

根据其后是否带宾语,动词可分为及物动词(带宾语)和不及物动词(不带宾语)。如:

When will he arrive?他什么时候到?(arrive 不带宾语,为不及物动词)

He reached Beijing yesterday.他昨天到达北京。(reach 带了宾语,为及物动词)

有的动词既可用作及物动词也可用作不及物动词:

The child is playing.这小孩在玩。(不及物用法)

The child is playing the piano.这小孩在弹钢琴。(及物用法) He is writing.他在写字。(不及物用法) He is writing a letter.他在写信。(及物用法) The boy is reading.这男孩在阅读。(不及物用法) The boy is reading a magazine.这男孩在看杂志。(及物用法)

初中英语动词知识点:谓语动词与非谓语动词

根据其是否能用作谓语,动词可分为谓语动词和非谓语动词。谓语动词在句中可用作谓语,而非谓语动词则不用作谓语(但可用作主语、宾语、补语、状语、定语等)。非谓语动词包括不定式、动名词、分词三种:

He lives in Shanghai.他住在上海。(live 为谓语动词)

I want to go home.我想回家。(want 为谓语动词,to go 为非谓语动词)

He enjoyed watching TV.他喜欢看电视。(enjoy为谓语动词,watching为非谓语动词)

He had his hair cut.他理发了。(had 为谓语动词,cut 为非谓语动词)

初中英语知识点:动词的分类及基本形式

英语动词的分类及基本形式

动词的分类

表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为行为动词、系动词、助动词和情态动词四类,有些动词是兼类词。如:

We have lunch at 12.我们12点吃午饭。(have是行为动词)

We have been to New York.我们去过纽约。(have是助动词)

W I am hungry.我饿了。(am是连系动词)

She was beaten on the way home.她在回家的路上被人打了。(was是助动词)

You needn’t have waited for me.你本来不必等我。(need是情态动词)

The door needs painting.这个门需要油漆了。(needs及物动词)

动词的基本形式

绝大多数动词都有五种基本形式:动词原形、一般现在时第三人称单数、过去式、过去分词和现在分词。

A.第三人称单数形式的构成

一般现在时主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词后要加s或es,其变化规则与名词变复数的方法大体相同:

1.一般情况下只在动词后加s,如workworks, writewrites。

2.以s, x, sh, ch结尾的动词,后加es,如guessguesses, mixmix, finishfinishes, catchcatches。

3.以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,改y为ies,如studystudies。

注:不规则变化的有havehas, beis, gogoes, dodoes等。

B.现在分词的构成

1.一般情况下在动词后加ing,如studystudying, workworking。

2.以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,先去掉e再加ing,如writewriting, movemoving。

3.以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词,要双写末尾一个辅音字母,再加ing,如getgetting, beginbeginning。

4.以ie结尾的名词,一般将ie改为y,再加ing,如lielying, diedying, tietying。

注:(A)以l结尾的动词,尾音节重读时,双写l,如controlcontrolling;尾音节不重读时,双不双写都可以,如traveltraveling(美)/travelling(英)。(B)特例:picnicpicnicking。

C.过去式和过去分词的构成

1.一般情况直接加ed,如askasked, workworked。

2.以不发音的e结尾,只加d,如loveloved, dancedanced。

3.以辅音字母加y结尾,把y变为ied,如trytried, studystudied。

4.以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词,先双末尾一个字母,再加ed,如stopstopped, permitpermitted。

注:(A)以l结尾的动词,尾音节重读时,双写l,如controlcontrolled;尾音节不重读时,双不双写都可以,如traveltraveled(美)/traveled(英)。(B)特例:picnicpicnicked。另外,还有很多动词的过去式和过去分词是不合乎上述规则的,需要熟记。

英语连系动词的分类

(1)状态系动词:只有be一词。如:

She is always like that.她总是那样。

I am used to going about alone.我习惯于独来独往。

These shoes are too tight for me.这双鞋我穿太小。

(2)持续系动词:表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, rest, lie, stand。如:

I hope you’ll keep fit.我希望你身体好。

He always kept silent at meeting.他开会时总保持沉默。

The door remained closed.门仍然关着。

We can remain friends.我们可以继续做朋友。

Please stay seated.请继续坐着。

He stayed single.他仍然是单身。

(3)表像系动词:表示“看起来好像”,主要有seem, appear, look等。如:

He looks tired.他看起来很累。

He seems (to be) quite happy.他好像很快活。

The doctor seemed very capable.那医生似乎很能干。

He appeared quite well.他显得身体相当好。

He appeared taken aback.他似乎很吃惊。

She appeared perplexed.她显得迷惑不解。

(4)感官系动词:表示“起来”,有feel(摸起来,感觉), smell(闻起来), sound(听起来), taste(尝起来,吃起来)等。如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft.这种布摸起来很软。

He looks honest, but actually he’s a rogue.他看起来很老实,实际他是一个坏蛋。

They all look alike to me.他们的模样我看起来都一样。

Everybody feels contented.每个人都感到很满足。

Ice feels cold.冰感觉起来是凉的。

Silk feels soft and smooth.丝绸摸起来很柔软平滑。

It sounds a good idea.这听起来是个好主意。

This food tastes good.这菜好吃。

(5)变化系动词:表示主语变成什么样,主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run如:

He became mad after that.自那之后,他疯了。

She had grown thinner and thinner.她越来越瘦了。

His cold was growing worse.他的感冒越来越严重了。

She’s growing fat.她正在发胖。

He’s grown used to it.他对此已经习惯。

When she saw this, she turned red.她看到这,脸红了。

His hair turned grey in a few weeks.在几个星期中他头发就变灰白了。

The milk will soon turn sour.牛奶很快就会变酸。

Several people fell ill, victims of blood poisoning.几个人生病了,都是血中毒的受害者。

We get wiser as we get old.随着年岁的增长,我们也变得聪明些了。 Your hair has gone quite white!你的头发全白了! She went pale at the news.听到这消息,她脸色变得苍白。

When I mentioned it to him he went red.我对他提及此事时他脸红了。 He went mad.他疯了(from )。 The children must not go hungry.孩子们不能挨饿。

(6)终止系动词:主要有prove, turn out(结果是,证明是)等。如: His story proved false.他讲的情况原来是假的。 His advice proved sound.他的劝告证明是对的。

My intuition turned out to be correct.我的直觉证明是对的。

动词的种类动词是表示动作或状态的词,按其词义和在句子中的作用可分为行为动词,连系动词,助动词和情态动词。

1.行为动词

行为动词可分为及物动词(vt)和不及物动词(vi),及物动词表示动作或状态,有完整的词义,能单独作谓语,后跟宾语;不及物动词表示动作或状态,有完整的词义,能单独作谓语,但后面不能直接跟宾语,如要带宾语则与介词或副词构成短语。

如: More and more people study English.(vt)

The students are listening to the teacher carefully.(vi)

2.连系动词

连系动词本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。常用的连系动词有 be, get, turn, become, look, feel, grow, seem, sound, taste, smell等。

如:

Our country is becoming stronger and stronger.

It feels damp.

3.助动词

助动词本身无词义,不能单独作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示否定,疑问及动词的时态、语态、人称和数等语法特征,助动词有 be,do,have,shall,will等。

如: How do you usually come to school?

The children are playing yo-yo now.

4.情态动词

情态动词本身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词原形一起构成谓语,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和数的变化。情态动词有 can (could),may(might),must, need, ought to, dare等。

如: Can I help you?

- Must we go now?-No, you needn’t.

a. can与be able to的用法有所区别。can只用于一般现在时和过去时,指本身有能力的"能";be able to用于各种时态均可,指须经过努力而"能"。

b. must与have/has to的用法。must表示说话人主观认为"必须",只用于一般现在时和一般将来时;have/has to表示客观需要,意为"不得不",它可用于各种时态。

c.need和dare既可作情态动词也可作行为动词。

范文3:初中英语语音基础知识

语音

语音:语言的声音,即人们从口中说出,用以交流思想或表达感情的声音。英语语音主要包括英语字母,国际音标,元音字母在重读开音节和闭音节中的读音,元音字母在非重读音节中的读音,辅音字母和辅音字母组合在单词中的读音,语调等内容。

一、英语字母

英语一共有26个字母,其中有5个元音字母(a、e、i、o、u),一个半元音字母(y),20个辅音字母。现就其发音归纳如下表:

A E I O U

H J K B C D G P T V Y O Q W R F L M N S X Z [ei][i:][ai][u][ju:][:]

二、国际音标英语中一共有48个音标,其中20个为元音音标:[][:][ei][e][u][au][ai][ae][i][i][][u][][:][i:][i][][:][u][u:]。

辅音音标有28个,见下表:

清浊分发音方法

爆破音摩擦音鼻音舌侧音破擦音

清浊清浊清浊清浊清浊清浊清浊清浊

p ts b w m l dz t f tr d v n dr k θ t

g d s

z r

j h

三、元音字母在重读开音节和闭音节中的读音(音节、开音节、闭音节)1.音节:英语单词是由字母组成的,音节是语音结构的基本单位,它由一个元音或一个元音加一个或几个辅音构成。只有一个音节的词叫单音节词,含有两个、三个或更多的音节的单词,分别称为双音节词和多音节词。

2.开音节:以一个元音字母结尾的重读音节称为开音节(或称绝对开音节)。例如:be,no,hi,we,go,so等。包含一个元音字母的重读音节中,在元音字母后面有一个辅音字母(r除外),还有一个不发音的字母e,这种重读音节也叫开音节(或称相对开音节)。例如:name,time,bike,cake,nose等。不论是绝对开音节还是相对开音节,其元音字母读它们本身的发音,即a [ei] e[i:] i[ai] o[u] u[ju:]。3.闭音节:包含一个元音字母,而以辅音字母(r,w除外)结尾的重读音节,称为闭音节。例如:cap,desk,big,bus,hat等。元音字母在重读闭音节中读它的短音,即a[ae] e[e] i[i] o[] u[]。

4.重读音节和非重读音节:只有一个音节的词都是重读音节,不标出重读符号。在双音节或多音节词中,其中有一个需要读得较响亮的音节,这个音节就叫重读音节。重读音节用“'”符号表示。例如:family['f aemili],table['teibl]。重读音节之外的音节称为非重读音节。非重读音节读的较轻。例如:about['b aut],today[t 'dei]。下面按元音字母a,e,i,o,u的顺序,把一些最常见的拼读规则列表如下:

元音字母a 或a+其他字母

读音[ei]

例词cake,make,grade,name,take 字母 a a a ai(ay) al ar 音节类型开音节闭音节在w或wh后面

[ae] cat,map,bag,black,hat [] what,watch [:] water 在重读音节中在音节中

在重读音节中

[ei]train,rain,say,may,day,play [:] wall,ball,small,all,talk [:l] also,always [:] far,hard,car,starar air are ass

在[w]后在重读音节中在重读音节中在重读音节中

[:] warm,quarter [] chair,hair [] care,hare [:s] pass,grass,class 元音字母e或e+其他字母

字母 e 闭音节

ea ee er er

音节类型开音节

读音[i:][e][i:]例词

we,she,he,me,these pen,bed,let,bell,hen please,seat,easy,teacher bread,head,sweater jeep,tree,green,need 在重读音节中

[e]在重读音节中在重读音节中在非重读音节中

[i:][:] her,term,certainly [] sister,father,mother,brother 元音字母i或i+其他字母

字母 i 闭音节

ie 在重读音节中

[i][i:] it,is,sit,big,his believe,field 音节类型开音节

读音例词

[ai:] bike,like,time,fine,rice[ai] die,lie,tie igh ir

在重读音节中在重读音节中

[ai:] night,right,light,high [:] bird,girl,thirteen,thirty 元音字母o或o+其他字母

字母音节类型开音节

读音例词

[u] go,no,so,home [][] not,box,wrong come,love,mother,other o 闭音节在重读音节中

oa oy oo 在重读音节中在重读音节中在多数情况下

在k前在重读音节中

[u] boat,road,coat [i] boy,toy [u:] room,too,zoo,moon,soon [u] book,look,cook [:] or,sport,horse [:] work,worker,world,worse [au] house,about,out [:] fought,bought,thought [au] how,now,down,brown or 在[w]后面在多数情况下

ou 在ght前

ow 在重读音节中

[u] know,window,show,row 元音字母u或u+其他字母

字母 u 音节类型开音节闭音节

读音[u:] blue,ruler []例词

but,bus,us,mum,cup ur u

在重读音节中在重读音节中

[:] nurse,turn,Thursday [ju:] use,student,excuse 元音字母在非重读音节中的读音

字母 a 音节类型在非重读音节中

读音[][i][]例词

China,America,about,ago orange,village hundred,open,student beside,jacket,belong mang,study,fifty,city protest,production difficult e i(y) o u

在非重读音节中

[i]在非重读音节中在非重读音节中在非重读音节中

[i][][]常见的辅音字母和辅音字母组合的读音

字母 c [k] cry,act,cut,cold,clock 读音[s]例词

nice,rice,city,pencilch th [t][θ][ ] rich,chair,much,watch thank,think,three,thin,month this,that,with,these,those she,shoe,finish,wash who,whose,whom,whole what,where,which,why long,ring,sing,wrong English,younger,hungry photo,telephone,phone sh wh [][h][w][] ng [g ] ph

[f]四、语调说话时语言的上升和下降称为语调。不同的语调往往代表不同的含义和感情色彩。英语中有两种基本语调:升调和降调。它们的区别在于句子末尾音调的升或降。升调用“”符号表示,降调用“”符号表示。

1.读升调的句子

1)能用Yes,No回答的一般疑问句。例如: Are you a student ? Can you answer me ? Do you often drive a car to go shopping ?2)有些习惯表达句子。例如: Here you are . Excuse me . I beg your pardon .3)表示请求的句子。例如: May I come in ? Would you tell me a story ? Could you help me ?

2.读降调的句子1)陈述局。例如:

I’m in Class One ,Grade Two . We are going to have a meeting . You’re welcome .2)特殊疑问句。例如:

What colour is your sweater ? How old are you ?

范文4:初中英语知识点-【副词】

副词目录副词的构成...............................................................................................................................1 副词的比较级...........................................................................................................................2 副词的分类...............................................................................................................................3 副词的基本用法.......................................................................................................................3 副词的位置...............................................................................................................................4 重点副词注释...........................................................................................................................4 副词的原级、比较级和最高级的六种基本句型...................................................................7 副词作宾语补足语时在句子中的位置...................................................................................8 副词作定语时在句子中的位置...............................................................................................8 副词作表语时在句子中的位置...............................................................................................8 副词作状语时在句子中的位置...............................................................................................8

副词的构成从形态上看,大多数副词都是由"形容词+后缀-ly"构成的,例如:slowly, heavily, truly, terribly等。

形容词变副词:

①.在形容词词尾直接加-ly。如:real-really; helpful-helpfully; careful-carefully; slow-slowly; quick-quickly; quiet-quietly ②.以辅音字母加y结尾的形容词要变y为i,然后再加-ly。如:busy-busily; angry-angrily; easy-easily ③.某些以辅音字母加不发音的字母e结尾和以-ue结尾的形容词要先去掉e,然后再加-y或-ly。如:terrible-terribly; true-truly; gentle-gently 注意: friendly; motherly; lovely,weekly,lively等词是形容词而非副词。④.英语中还有少数与形容词同形的副词,例如:daily, early, fast, hard, high, long, near, straight, well等。请比较它们的词义和用法:

the high jump 跳高项目(形容词) to jump high 跳得高(副词) a fast car 行得快的汽车(形容词)to drive fast 开快车(副词) an early riser 早起的人(形容词)to get up early 起得早(副词) a straight line直线(形容词)Go straight ahead.一直朝前走。(副词)注意:兼有两种形式的副词①.late 与lately:

late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"。例如:You have come too late. What have you been doing lately?②.deep与deeply: deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。例如:He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film.1

③.high与highly:

high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much 。例如:The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion.④.wide与widely:

wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"。例如:He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world.副词的比较级副词和形容词一样,也有它的比较级和最高级形式.可以参考形容词的变换形式。但以词尾-ly 结尾的副词(除 early )须用 more 和 most 。

hard harder hardest fast faster fastest early earlier earliest much more most warmly more warmly most warmly 单音节副词的比较级是在副词后面加上-er 构成的,最高级是在副词后面加上-est 构成的。

near nearer nearest hard harder hardest 多音节副词的比较级是在副词的前面加上-more 构成的。最高级是在副词前面加上-most 构成的。

warmly more warmly most warmly successfullymore successfullymost successfully 有些副词的比较级和最高级形式是不规则的。 well-better - best little - less - least Much- more - most badly - worse - worst far-farther(further)-farthest(furthest)副词的比较级和最高级用法同形容词的比较级用法基本一样。最高级形式句中 the 可以省略。

He works harder than I.他比我工作努力。

Lucy gets up earlier than Lili.露西比丽丽起床早。

He runs fastest in our class.他在我们班跑地最快。

He dives deeper than his teammates.他比他的队员潜水深。

It's true that he speak English more fluently than any of us.他英语讲的确实比我们任何人都好。

Our school team play football best in our region.我们校队在我们地区足球踢得最好的。

2副词的分类

分类:

1、时间和频度副词: now,then,often,always,usually,early,today, lately, next,last,already,generally,frequently, seldom,ever,never,yet,soon,too, immediately, hardly,finally,shortly, before, ago,sometimes, yesterday.2、地点副词: here, there, everywhere, anywhere, in, out, inside, outside, above, below, down, back, forward, home, upstairs, downstairs, across, along, round , around, near, off, past, up, away, on.3、方式副词: carefully, properly, anxiously, suddenly, normally, fast, well, calmly, politely, proudly, softly, warmly 4、程度副词,放在被修饰词之前: much,little, very,rather,so,too,still, quite, perfectly, enough, extremely, entirely,almost, slightly.5、疑问副词,一般放在句首: how, when, where, why.6、关系副词,一般放在句首: when, where, why.7、连接副词: how, when, where, why, whether.副词的基本用法

副词在句中主要用作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词、介词短语或句子。

⑴修饰动词,表示时间、地点、程度、方式、频度等。一般位于动词之后,如果动词有宾语,则要位于宾语之后。频度副词常位于助动词和连系动词be 之后或实义动词之前。例如:He arrived only yesterday.他是昨天才到的。There were clothes lying here and there on the floor.地板上到处都是衣服。I have been terribly worried about you all day.我一整天都非常为你担心。She plays the piano very well.她钢琴弹得很好。The boy is always asking his parents for money.那个男孩老是向他父母要钱。She never goes to the cinema.她向来不看电影。

⑵修饰形容词、副词、介词短语,一般前置,只有enough例外,需要后置。例如:She seems quite happy.她看上去相当愉快。You've done rather badly in the test.你考得够糟糕的。The wind was right in our faces.风迎面吹来。This girl is not old enough to go to school.这个女孩还没有到上学的年龄。He didn't run fast enough to catch the train.他跑得不够快,没有赶上火车。

⑶用作表语,多为与介词同形的副词和表示方位的副词。例如:Is anybody in?里面有人吗?有人在家吗?Father is away.父亲离家在外。I am downstairs and my brother is upstairs.我住楼下,我哥哥住楼上。My friend is still abroad.我的朋友还在国外。

⑷少数表示地点或时间的副词还可用作定语,一般位于名词之后。例如:I hope you'll enjoy your stay here.希望你在这里过得愉快。I met a friend of mine on my way home.在我3

回家的路上,我碰到一位朋友。What did you think of the meeting yesterday?你觉得昨天的会开得怎样?

⑸副词的比较等级用法与形容词一样,请参见《初中英语语法专题讲座--形容词》有关内容。

副词的位置

①.副词修饰动词时,通常可以放在句首、句中或句末。如:Usually I do my homework in the evening.(句首)通常我晚上做家庭作业。 I often get up at six.(句中)我常在6点起床。Please speak slowly.(句末)请慢慢说。

注意:频度副词通常置于系动词、情态动词、助动词之后,实义动词之前。例如: Mary is always late for the meeting.?玛丽开会老是迟到。We must always remember our friends.我们必须牢记我们的朋友。? I have never been to London.我从未去过伦敦。My mother often does morning exercises in the morning.我妈妈经常在早上做早操。?②.副词修饰形容词或副词时,通常放在形容词或副词的前面,但也有例外。如:These flowers are quite beautiful.(在形容词前)这些花相当漂亮。 He works very hard.(在副词前)他工作很努力。 She is old enough to go to school.(在形容词后)她已到了上学的年龄。

注意:

A.副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。例如:(错) I very like English.(对) I like English very much. B.副词enough应放在所修饰的形容词、副词或动词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。例如:The boy is old enough to go to school.这个男孩到上学的年龄了。I know him well enough.我非常了解他。

He didn't get up early enough to catch the early bus.他起床不够早,没有赶上早班车。 C.注意顺序:

quite/rather a good player=a very good player.一个相当不错的球员。③.按一般规则,如果有几个时间状语,单位大的应放在单位小的后面。如:The film will begin at seven o'clock this evening.电影今晚7点开演。 I was born at two o'clock on the morning of May15.④.按一般规则,既有地点状语又有时间状语时,地点状语应放在时间状语之前。如:We had a meeting in the classroom yesterday afternoon.我们昨天下午在教室开了一个会。 He watched TV at home last night.他昨晚在家看电视。

重点副词注释

1.as…as…常构成一些词组:as soon as…(一旦…就…), as well as…(同样), as+形容词/副词+as possible(尽可能……地)。如:Please ring me up as soon as you get to Beijing.(请你一到北京就给我写信。)/ Miss Gao hurried to the school gate as quickly as possible.(高小姐尽快地赶到了校门口。)[注释]"as long / much as +名词"可以表示"长达/多达…"的含义。如:The house costs as much as five hundred thousand yuan.(那幢房子花费高达50万元。)/ They stayed in the cave(山洞)as long as two weeks.(他们呆在山洞里长达两周。)4

2. later、after、ago、before的用法:①"一段时间+later/ago"分别表示"(多久)以后/以前",主要用于过去时态。②"after/before+某个时刻"分别表示"在某时刻之后/之前",此时两个词是介词。③ago与before:ago只能用于过去时,before用于完成时。如:He had an accident a week ago.(一周前出了一个事故)/ Some years later, the boy became a very famous singer.(数年后这个男孩成了著名的歌唱家)/ Have you been there before?(你从前到过那儿吗?)/ After a few years he gave up smoking.(过了几年他戒了烟。)3.above、below、over、under的用法:在上下方用above和below,在高低处用over和under.如:The stars are high above in the sky.(星星高挂在空中)/ A plane flew over quickly.(一架飞机从头顶飞过。)当above、below、over、under是介词性质时,意义相似。

4. too、also、either、nor的用法:too("也")用于肯定句和疑问句的末尾,且用逗号隔开;also("也")用于肯定句句子谓语动词之前;either("也")用于否定句末尾,也用逗号隔开;nor("也不")用于倒装句句首;如:Are you American,too?(你也是美国人吗?)/ He is not happy and I am not happy, either.(他不愉快,我也不。)/ He didn't watch the football game. Nor did I.(他没有看足球赛,我也没有。)/ You can also find the market is very good.(你还可以发觉那个市场很好。)5. enough、too、so、very、quite、very much的用法: enough ("足够,十分")放在形容词或副词之后;too("太")、very("非常")、quite("相当")、so("如此地")等放在形容词或副词之前,very much("非常")放在动词之后。如:It's too/so/very/quite expensive.(它太贵/那么贵/非常贵/相当贵。)/ I don't like sweets very much.(我不很喜欢糖果)[注意] very与 much的区别:very修饰形容词、副词的原级和现在分词形容词,much修饰形容词和副词的比较级;much还可以修饰疑问句和否定句中的动词,very不可以。如:He is very stupid.(他很笨)/ The film was very moving and everyone swept.(电影非常动人,大家都哭了)/ You must work much harder or you will fail to enter the good school.(你得学习更努力,不然你考不进那所好学校)/ I don't like him much.(我不太喜欢他)6. sometimes、 sometime、 some times 、some time的用法:sometimes(有时)用于一般现在时、 sometime(在将来某时)用于将来时、 some times(数次)表示次数、some time(一些时间)表示一段时间。如:Sometimes they go hiking in the mountains.(他们有时徒步旅行到山里去)/ I will stay here some time.(我会在这儿呆些时候的。)/ I will meet your father sometime.(我什么时候要见见你的父亲。)7. how、what用于感叹句的用法:对句子中的形容词或副词感叹时用how,对人或事物(可能含有形容词作修饰语)进行感叹用what.如:What a fine day (it is) today!(今天天气真好!)/ How difficult (the problem is)!((问题)真难呀!)8.already、yet的用法:在完成时中,already一般用于肯定句,yet一般用于否定句和疑问句。如:Have you done it already?(你已经做好了?)/ I have not had my breakfast yet.(我还没有吃早饭呢。)9. hard与hardly的用法:hard作为副词意思是:"努力地,猛烈地",hardly是否定词,意思是:"几乎不",一般与情态动词can/could连用。如:They study English very hard.(他们英语学得很刻苦)/ You can hardly see a person spit in a public place.(在公共场所你几乎看不到一个人随地吐痰)10. like...very much、like...better(=prefer)、like...best的用法:三个短语分别表示"非常喜欢"、"更喜欢"、"最喜欢"。如:I like baseball very much.(我非常喜欢棒球)/ Do you like butter better than cheese?(/ They like hamburgers best.11."quite/what+a+形容词+名词"的用法:记住:①quite/such/what...+a+形容词+名词;②5

too/so/how+形容词+a+名词;③rather+a+形容词+名词= a+ rather+形容词+名词。如:I have never seen such a strange guy(家伙).(我从未见过这样奇怪的家伙)/ It is quite a nice day for a walk.(这真是散步的好日子)12. how 的几个短语:how often"多常,每隔多久",用于一般时态,对表示频度的词语进行提问; how soon"多久以后",用于将来时态; how long"多久",用于过去时、完成时或其他时态; how many times"多少次",用于过去时或完成时,对总计次数进行提问; how much"多么,多少",对程度进行提问,也可以对数量(不可数)或金钱进行提问。如:How long have you been like this?(你这样已经多久了?)/ How often does he wash his face?(他每隔多久洗一次脸?)13. much、more与most的用法:这三个词除了是形容词作名词的修饰语之外,还是程度副词,much表示"很",修饰原级形/副,more表示"更"用来构成多音节形/副的比较级,most表示"最"用来构成多音节形/副的最高级。此外,much也可以修饰比较级形/副。如:This park is much more beautiful than that one.(这个公园比那个漂亮多了)/ It is the most instructive film I have ever seen.(这是我看过的最有教育意义的电影)14. no more、no longer、not...any more、no...any longer的用法:表示时间,可以用no longer、not...ny more、no...any longer,而且no longer只能放在谓语动词之前;表示程度,可以用no more、not...any more.如:He no longer lived there.(他不再住在那里)/ Tom wanted no more cakes.(他不想再要蛋糕)/ He didn' t smoke any more/longer.(他不再抽烟)15.被动语态中,方式副词一般放在be与谓语动词之间。如: The runner was badly hurt.(赛跑运动员受了重伤)/ English is widely spoken in the world today.(如今世界上英语说得很广泛)16.too...to...与so...that...的问题:副词too/so后面跟形容词或副词,to后面跟动词,that后面跟从句。Too...to...("太.……以致不……")是否定的结构,用于简单句;so...that...("如此…以致…")是肯定结构,用于复合句。如:The child is too young to join the army.(这孩子年龄太小还不能参军)/ He is so strong that he can lift the heavy box.(他这么强壮,搬得动那个重箱子。)17.既是形容词也是副词的单词有:early, late, long, last, next, first, near, enough, much, all, hard, alone, fast, slow, high, low, straight等等。如:It was a long holiday.(那是个长假)/ He stayed there very long.(他在那儿呆了好久)/ Think hard then you will find a way.(好好想你就会找到办法)/ He is a very hard(难对付的) person.(他是个难玩的家伙)18. farther与further的用法区别:表示地点、方向或距离时两个词同义,意思为"更远、较远",但是further还表示"更多、进一步、额外"等意思,此时不能换为farther.如:They decided to go farther/further the next day.(他们决定第二天走得再远些)/ This problem will be further discussed.(这个问题还要进一步讨论)/ Every one of them had their further studies after they left college.(他们每个人大学毕业后继续进修)19. rather与quite的用法区别:同very一样,两个词都表示形容词或副词的程度,quite表示"不到最高程度但是比预料的好",rather比quite更接近very的含义,含有令人惊讶的意思。见下图对"nice"程度的描绘:

not nice (fairly) nice quite nice rather nice very nice 如:It's quite a nice film.(这是部好片子)。(可能意味着不是一部最好的电影)/ It's rather a nice film.(这是部很不错的电影。)(意味着比大多数电影都好)[注意]注意quite与rather后面的次序词序。

20. maybe、possibly、perhaps的区别:maybe"可能、也许",比另外两个词更不正式、更随便、可能性不大;possibly"可能地、或者、也许",可能性较大,在否定句和疑问句中表示"无论如何";perhaps"可能",较为常用而且正式,可能性也不大。如:You could put it over there,maybe.(也许你可以把它放在那边)/ I couldn't possibly have finished such a long book in such a short time.(我不可能在这么短的时间内完成这么长的一本书)/ I thought perhaps it was 6

the letter you have been expecting.(我以为那也许就是你期盼的信件)21. most、mostly的区别:most作为形容词和名词时意思是"大多数的、大部分的",作为副词时意思为"最,十分、很";mostly仅为副词,意思为"主要地、多半地、大部分地"。如:I was at home most of the time when I was free.(我有空时大部分时间都在家)Most children are naughty.(大部分的孩子都淘气)/ This is the most exciting part of the film.(这是电影中最令人兴奋的部分)/She is mostly out on Sundays.(星期天她一般不在家)22.(be) worth、(be) worthy of的区别:worth一般被看作是介词,后面接名词或者动名词,用主动表示被动含义,还可以用副词well修饰;worthy of表示"值得的、配得上的",后面跟动名词的被动形式。如:What is worth doing at all is worth doing well(凡是值得做的,就值得好好去做)./ The house is worth ¥300,000.(房子价值30万元)/ This book is well worth reading several times.(这本书值得好好读几遍)/ It is a thing worthy of being seen.(这是一个值得看的东西)23.almost、nearly的区别:两个词意思相近,都表示"几乎、将近",大多数情况下可以互换,与否定词连用时用almost不用nearly. almost no 相当于hardly any(几乎没有)。如:He had done almost nothing today.(他今天几乎没有干什么)/ We are almost/nearly there.(我们几乎就到那里了)/ Almost nobody/Hardly anybody understood his words.(几乎没有人懂他的话)24.a bit与a little的区别:这两个名词短语经常当作副词使用,修饰形容词或副词的原级或比较级,可以互换,语气比rather弱。如:This digital camera is a bit(a little) expensive.(这台数码相机有点贵)/ It is a little(a bit) colder than yesterday.(今天比昨天冷了点)另外,a little可以直接加不可数名词,a bit 则采用"a bit + of +名词(不可数或可数名词复数)"的形式。如:I have got a bit of a cold.(我有点感冒)/ Go and get a little water for me, please.(请你去给我搞点水来)[注意] not a bit(=not at all)意为"根本不",而 not a little则意为"非常,不是一点"。

副词的原级、比较级和最高级的六种基本句型(1)讲述某人/物自身的情况时,用原级。基本句型是:

主语(sb./sth)+ 谓语动词+ (very/too/so/quite/rather…)+ 形容词/副词原级+….如:He is very old now.(他现在很老了)/ They ran quite fast.(它们跑得相当快)/ The weather looks rather bad.(天气看上去相当糟)/ I am so happy!(我是如此的快乐)☆表示两者之间没有差别时,使用句型:

主语(第一个人物)+ 谓语动词+ as +形容词/副词原级+ as +第二个人物+….如:He is as excited as his younger sister.(他和他妹妹一样兴奋)/ Lily rode her bike as slowly as an old lady.(莉莉骑车像老太太一样慢)/ They picked as many apples as the farmers (did).(他们摘的苹果和农民一样多)☆表示第一个人比不上第二个人时,使用句型:

主语(第一个人物)+ 谓语动词(否定式)+ as / so +形容词/副词原级+ as +第二个人物+….如:He is not so / as excited as his younger sister.(他没他妹妹那么兴奋)/ Lily did not ride her bike so / as slowly as an old lady.(莉莉骑车不像老太太那样慢)/ They didn't pick so / as many apples as the farmers (did).(他们摘的苹果不如农民多)(2)讲述两者有差异,第一个人物超过第二个人物时,用比较级。基本句型:

主语('A')+谓语动词+(much/a little/even/still)+形容词/副词比较级+than+第二个人物('B')+….7

如:A modern train is much faster than a car.(现代的火车比轿车快多了)/ This book didn't cost me more than that one.(这本书花费我的钱不比那本多)讲述两者有差异,第一个人物不及第二个人物时,用比较级。句型是:

主语('A')+ 谓语动词+ less+(多音节形/副)比较级+ than +第二个人物('B')+….如:I think English is less difficult than maths.(我认为英语不比数学难)/ Do you think it less important to learn a foreign language?(你认为学外语不那么重要吗?)(3)讲述某人/物是一群之中最突出的一个时,用最高级。句型是:主语(sb./sth)+ 谓语动词+(the)+形容词/副词最高级+in / of ….如:The Changjiang River is the longest in China.(长江是中国最长的河流)/ He jumped (the) highest of the three (boys).(三个男生中他跳得最高)副词作宾语补足语时在句子中的位置

(4)作宾语补足语:地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are giving out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的脏袜子拿开!它们在散发着臭气。) Father kept him in and doing his lessons.(父亲把他关在家里做作业)[注意]"动词+副词"的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.(他写下了那个词。)→He wrote it down.(他把它写了下来。)副词作定语时在句子中的位置

作定语:时间副词(如now、then)以及许多地点副词都可以作名词的定语,放在名词的后面。

如:People now often have their festival dinners at restaurants.(现在的人们经常在餐馆里吃节日晚宴)/ Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世纪20年代那儿的女人过着可怕的日子)副词作表语时在句子中的位置

(2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I'm very sorry he isn't in at the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家)/ I have been away from my hometown for nearly 20 years.(我离开家乡有将近20年了) Jim is over there.(吉姆就在那边)副词作状语时在句子中的位置

作状语:

①时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,early、late、before、later、yet等一般放在句尾,already、just一般放在动词的前面。如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow.(我们明天要去参观长城)/ They have already been to the UK twice.(他们去过英王国两次)/ Soon the lost 8

boy found his way back home.(不久迷路的孩子找到了回家的路)②频度副词:一般放在be动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,但sometimes、often等还可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twice、three times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early.(我有时起得早)/ The workers usually have lunch at the factory.(工人们通常在厂里吃午饭)/ Take this medicine twice a day.(这种药一天吃两次)③方式副词:一般放在行为动之后,suddenly可以放在句首、句尾或动词之前。如:Old people can hardly walk as quickly as young people.(老年人几乎不可能走得和年轻人一样快)/ Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave(山洞).(突然,在黑黢黢的山洞里,他看见了一丝亮光)④地点副词:一般放在句尾,但here、there还可放在句首。如:There you can see thousands of bikes running in all directions(方向).(在那里,你可以看到成千上万的自行车朝各个方向流动)/ The frightened wolf ran away.(受到惊吓的狼逃开了)/ He walked out quietly and turned back soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回)⑤程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面;only位置比较灵活,总是放在被修饰的词的前面。如:I nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告诉我,我几乎把那事全忘了)/ It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不能相信我的耳朵)/ She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地赶到车站赶上了首班车)⑥疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?(你何时何地出生?)/ Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小爱迪生为什么要坐在鸡蛋上?)/ How do you do?(你好!)⑦连接副词:用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,在从句中作状语。How I am going to kill the cat is still a question.(我打算怎样杀死那只猫还是个问题)/ That is why everyone is afraid of the tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因)/ He wondered how he could do it the next day.(他不知道第二天怎样做那事)⑧关系副词:用来引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once lived.(这就是张先生曾经住过的地方)/ Please tell me the way how you have learned English so well.(请告诉我你的英语是怎样学得这么好的方法)⑨其它副词:too"也",用在句尾;also放在动词前;either "也不",放在句尾;nor"也不",放在句首;so"如此,这样",放在形容词、副词前;on/off"开/关"放在动词之后;not放在be之后、助动词之后、不定式或动名词之前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或动词之前。如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宫博物院,我也去了)/ Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(也许你的票就在你的里边衣袋里)/ --Tom doesn't have a computer.-Nor do I.(汤姆没有计算机,我也没有。)

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范文5:初中英语人教版知识点总结

初中英语人教版知识点总结一般现在时的用法

1)经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2)客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China.3)表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall.骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4)现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don’t want so much.

Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. I am doing my homework now.第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back.第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。2.一般过去时的用法

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。

时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。 Where did you go just now?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。 When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

3)句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了""该……了" It is time sb. did sth."时间已迟了""早该……了" It is time for you to go to bed.你该睡觉了。 It is time you went to bed.你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth.表示’宁愿某人做某事’ I’d rather you came tomorrow.

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。 I thought you might have some.我以为你想要一些。

比较:

一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。 Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意:用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。 Did you want anything else? I wondered if you could help me.2)情态动词 could, would. Could you lend me your bike?3. used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。 Mother used not to be so forgetful.

Scarf used to take a walk.(过去常常散步)

be used to + doing:对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。 He is used to a vegetarian diet.

Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)

典型例题

---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.---- It’s 69568442.

A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t

答案A.本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。4.一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。 Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。 a.主语的意图,即将做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow? b.计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。 c.有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。 We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。 He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。5. be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来 will 表意愿

If you are going to make a journey, you’d better get ready for it a s soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.6. be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。 be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon.(客观安排)

I’m going to play football tomorrow afternoon.(主观安排)7.一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.

2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如:

Here comes the bus.= The bus is coming. There goes the bell.= The bell is ringing.

3)在时间或条件句中。

When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. I’ll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。 I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.11.用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。 It is the first time that I have visited the city. It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时. This is the best film that I’ve (ever) seen.这是我看过的最好的电影。

This is the first time (that) I’ve heard him sing.这是我第一次听他唱歌。

典型例题

(1)---Do you know our town at all?---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming

答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。

(2)---Have you ____ been to our town before?---No, it’s the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come

答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。

注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven’t received his letter for almost a month.12.比较since和for

Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。 I have lived here for more than twenty years. I have lived here since I was born..

My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.

Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976. I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl.

My brother has been in the Youth League for two years. I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.

注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。 I worked here for more than twenty years.(我现在已不在这里工作。)

I have worked here for many years.(现在我仍在这里工作。)

小窍门:当现在完成时+一段时间,这一结构中,我们用下面的公式转化,很容易就能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。

1)(对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.

= Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.2)(错) Harry has got married for six years.

= Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.

显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago.或 Harry has been married for six years.13. since的四种用法

1) since +过去一个时间点(如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。 I have been here since 1989.

2) since +一段时间+ ago

I have been here since five months ago.

3) since +从句

Great changes have taken place since you left.

Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.

4) It is +一段时间+ since从句

It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.被动语态的几种类型

1)主语句中有一个宾语的被动语态,如: He saw her in the shop yesterday. She was seen in the shop yesterday.2)主语有两个宾语的被动语态 Li Lei gave me a chemistry book.

I was given a chemistry book by Li Lei.

A chemistry book was given to me by Li Lei.3)主动句中含宾语补足语的句子的被动语态

若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词:feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher). We saw him play football on the playground.

--> He was seen to play football on the playground.

若宾语补足语是带to的不定式,那么被动语态仍保留to: Mother told me not to be late

I was told not to be late by mother.

5)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。

Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.6)表示"据说"或"相信"的词组

believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand It is said that…据说

It is reported that…据报道 It is believed that…大家相信 It is hoped that…大家希望

It is well known that…众所周知 It is thought that…大家认为 It is suggested that…据建议

It is taken granted that…被视为当然 It has been decided that…大家决定 It must be remember that…务必记住的是

It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.14.延续动词与瞬间动词

1)用于完成时的区别

延续动词表示经验、经历;瞬间动词表示行为的结果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。 He has completed the work.他已完成了那项工作。(表结果) I’ve known him since then.我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2)用于till / until从句的差异

延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……"瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……,才……" He didn’t come back until ten o’clock.他到10点才回来。

He slept until ten o’clock.他一直睡到10点。

典型例题

1. You don’t need to describe her. I ___ her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet

答案B.首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。

2.---I’m sorry to keep you waiting.

---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be

答案A.等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现. 不定式作宾语

1)动词+不定式

afford aim appear agree arrange ask be decide bother care choose come dare demand desire determine expect elect endeavor hope fail happen help hesitate learn long mean manage offer ought plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem tend wait wish undertake 举例:

The driver failed to see the other car in time.司机没能及时看见另一辆车。

I happen to know the answer to your question.我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。

2)动词+不定式;动词+宾语+不定式

ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish… I like to keep everything tidy.我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。

I like you to keep everything tidy.我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。 I want to speak to Tom.我想和汤姆谈话。

I want you to speak to Tom.我想让你和汤姆谈话。

3)动词+疑问词+ to

decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell

Please show us how to do that.请演示给我们如何去做。

There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can’t make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。

注意:疑问词带不定式在句中作成分时,谓语动词用单数。 The question is how to put it into practice.

问题是怎样把它付诸实施。2.不定式作补语

1)动词+宾语+不定式(to do)

advise allow appoint believe cause challenge command compel consider declare drive enable encourage find forbid force guess hire imagine impel induce inform instruct invite judge know like order permit persuade remind report request require select send state suppose tell think train trust understand urge warn

例句:

a. Father will not allow us to play on the street.父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。 b. We believe him to be guilty.我们相信他是有罪的。

Find 的特殊用法:

Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get,have。 I found him lying on the ground. I found it important to learn.

I found that to learn English is important.典型例题:

The next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead. A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying

答案:A.find的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。

2) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。

Acknowledge, believe, consider, think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel find, guess, judge, imagine, know, prove, see(理解), show, suppose, take(以为), understand We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。

典型例题

Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented

答案:A.由consider to do sth.排除B、D。.此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。而C为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选C。

3) to be +形容词

Seem, appear, be said, be supposed, be believed, be thought, be known, be reported, hope, wish, desire, want, plan, expect, mean…

The book is believed to be uninteresting.人们认为这本书没什么意思。

4) there be+不定式

believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand

We didn’t expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。注意:有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如regard, think believe, take, consider. We regard Tom as our best teacher.我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。 Mary took him as her father .玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。. 不定式作主语

1) It’s easy (for me) to do that.我做这事太容易了

easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better; the first, the next, the last, the best, too much, too little, not enough It’s so nice to hear your voice.听到你的声音真高兴。

It’s necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。

2) It’s very kind of you to help us.他帮助我们,他真好。

Kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly, selfish(自私的)例句:

It was silly of us to believe him.我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。

It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything.他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。

注意:1)其他系动词如,look,appear等也可用于此句型2)不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。

3)当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is… to…的句型(对)To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。(错)It is to believe to see.4. It’s for sb.和 It’s of sb.

1)for sb.常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等:

It’s very hard for him to study two languages.对他来说学两门外语是很难的。

2)of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。

It’s very nice of you to help me.你来帮助我,你真是太好了。

for 与of 的辨别方法:

用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of,不通则用for。如:

You are nice.(通顺,所以应用of)。

He is hard.(人是困难的,不通,因此应用for。)3)祁使句(Imperative Sentence)

祈使句往往是用来表示说话人的请求、命令、要求、建议,等等。祈使句的主语常被省略,因为这个主语很明确地是听话人"you"。当然,有时为了强调或表示某种感情,句子也会带上主语。

祈使句的谓语用动词原形;它的否定形式是句首用Don't +动词原形,或是Not to +动词原形。例如: Be quiet , please !(大家)请安静。 Stand up !起立!

Don't smoke in the office .请不要在办公室吸烟。 Don't be standing in the rain .别站在雨里。

Not to be careless when you're driving a car .开车时不要粗心大意。4)感叹句(Exclamatory Sentence)感叹句表示说话人的喜悦、气愤、惊讶等强烈的情绪。这类句子中,有很多是由What或How引起的。What 用来强调名词,How则强调形容词、副词或动词。这类句子的构成只需将所强调或是说,所感叹的对象放到句首;句子无需倒装,句子要用正常语序。当然,如果不用这种句型,而句子(无论是那种句子)本身又表示了上述的种种情绪,那么该句也就成了感叹句。例如: What a fine day it is today !今天天气多好啊! How fine it is today !今天天气多好啊!

What a lovely son you have !你有个多可爱的儿子啊! How lovely your son is !你的儿子多可爱

范文6:初中英语写作常用句型

初中英语写作常用句型

1.表示写信目的I’m writing to tell you something about (my hobby).2.表示回信 I’m glad to hear from you./Thanks for your letter.

3.表示某地有什么…There will be an animal show in the zoo on July 1st.4.表示某人有什么I have a pet dog .

5.表示做什么是怎么样的.It’s easy /hard /important to play sports every day 6.表示抱歉I’m sorry that I can’t come ./I ‘m afraid I can’t come.

7.表示原因 He was late because he missed the bus./Because of the rain , he was late.

8.表示并列 I like swimming as well as running ./I like not only swimming but also running./both …and

9.表示结果 As a result , He won the first prize./He works hard , so He won the first prize./ He works so hard that he won the first prize.10.表示假设 If you come , I will show you around the city.

11.表示时间 When I was 5, I began to play the piano.= I began to play the piano at the age of 5.=I have played the piano since I was 5./ I didn’t understand him until /before you told me ./As soon as it ‘s 12 O’clock, people shout happily.

12.表示比较 He is taller than me./ This is the most moving film I have ever seen./I prefer swimming to running./I want to go swimming instead of running./I would rather stay at home than go out on rainy days./The more, the better./ I hope our country becomes more and more beautiful 13.表示看法In my opinion, It’s not right to copy others’ homework.

/I think Spending too much time playing computer games is bad for our eyes and study.

14.表示套语 As we know, everyone has his hobby.

15.表示高兴I was tired but I felt happy./We are so happy that we forgot the time.

16.表示惊讶,To my surprise, they beat the team .17.表示难过同情I’m sorry to hear that.18.表示生气.I’m angry with him.

19.表示建议 You should/can play sports every day. You shouldn’t always watchingTV./ You’d better play spots./ It’s a good idea to play sports ever day.20.表示号召 Come on,Let’s join take part in it .

21.表示祝愿 I wish you happy every day . Best wishes to you ./Good luck to you./ I hope you can have a good time.

22.表示转折 Although he is poor, he is happy .=He is poor but he is happy. HE IS POOR , However, he is happy.

23.表示好处与坏处 Shopping online has its disadvantages and advantages 24.表示评价 Except for too much fighting, It’s an excellent film.25.表示邀请 Would you like to go with me?26.表示介绍自己 I’m a student of Grade 8.

27.表示介绍他人My best friend is Jim . He is thin with glasses.28.表示介绍事件 A fire happened yesterday.

29.表示常做的’ I often pick up rubbish on the ground.

30.表示做某事有一段时间 We have been friends for ten years.=We became friends ten years ago.=It’s ten years since we became friends.31.表示先后顺序First , second , Next, then , finally.

32.表并列列举First, second, What’s more,/ I like sports, such as runninf, swimming and so on.

33.表示空间时间(从小到大) He was born in Huizhou, Guangdong, on June 1,1999,34.表示感谢 Thanks for your help/ With the help of him , I could pass the exam.

35.表示想干某事 I would like to go there with you ./I want to apply for the job./ I ‘d like to be a volunteer .

36.表示可能.If I have a lot of money , I would help the poor children.

范文7:初中英语写作常用句型

初中英语写作常用的连接词及一些重点从句、句型。一、常用连接词

1.表文章结构顺序:First of all, Firstly/First, Secondly/Second… And then, Finally, In the end, At last 2.表并列补充关系的:What is more, besides 3.表转折对比关系的:However, but Although + clause(从句) On the one hand… On the other hand… Some… while others…

4.表因果关系的:Because, As ,So , As a result 5.表换一种方式表达:In other words 6.表进行举例说明:For example,句子;For instance,句子;7.表陈述事实:In fact 8.表达自己观点: In my opinion 9.表总结:In a word In summary 10.文中正确使用两三个好的句型,如:宾语从句、状语从句、动名词做主语等。

(1)宾语从句举例:I believe Tianjin will be more beautiful and prosperous.(2)状语从句举例:If everyone does something for the environment, our hometown will become clean and beautiful.(3)动名词做主语举例:Reading books in the sun is bad for our eyes. It's bad for our eyes to read books in the sun.二、常用状语从句

1.时间:when, not…until, as soon as 2.目的:so that+从句; to do(为了)

3.结果:so…that+从句, too…to do(太……以至于……)4.条件:if, unless(除非), as long as(只要)

5.让步:though, although, even though, even if ,no matter what/when/where/who/which/how 6.比较:as…as…, not so…as…, than 三、重点句型

1.It is said that +句子据说… It is reported that +句子据报道…2.There is no need to do 没必要做…3.It's adj. for sb. to do 做…对某人来说…4.so/such… that …如此…以至于… too … to do 太…而不能…

5.not…until…直到…才…例: I didn't go to bed until my mother came back.6.The reason why +句子 is that +句子…的原因是…

7.The reason why he got angry was that she told him a lie.( 他生气的原因是她对他说了谎。)8.That is why +句子那是…的原因9.That is because +句子那是因为…10.as we all know,+句子据我们所知11.it is known that…,众所周知四、提建议

It's best to do 最好做… had better (not) do 最好(不)做

how about / what about doing …怎么样?I think you should do 我认为你应该…

Why not do / why don't you do…?为什么不…五、努力做 try to do 努力做…

try one's best to do = do one's best to do 竭尽全力做…… do what sb. can (do) to do 尽力做…六、表示喜欢和感兴趣 like / love doing enjoy doing be fond of doing 喜欢做…

prefer to do A rather than do B 宁愿做A也不愿做B be interested in doing = show/ take great interest in n./ doing 七、表示想/希望

want to do = would like to do 想做… hope to do 希望做… expect to do 期待着做… wish to do 希望做… consider doing 考虑做…八、打算做、计划做 plan to do 打算做… be going to do 打算做… decide to do 决定做…

make up one 's mind to do 下定决心做…九、必背句型

finish 完成/ practice 练习/ suggest建议/ consider 考虑/ mind 介意/ enjoy 喜欢doing look forward to doing 盼望做… keep on doing 坚持做… dream of doing 梦想做… can't help doing 情不自禁地做…

keep / stop / prevent sb. from doing 阻止某人做… be busy (in ) doing be busy with +名词忙于做…

spend time / money (in )doing spend time / money on +名词花费时间做…

have fun / have a good time / enjoy oneself doing 玩得开心 have trouble / have problem / have difficulty (in) doing 或 with +名词做…有困难

范文8:初中英语写作常用句型

初中英语写作常用句型 I.用于文章主题句1.不用说 It goes without saying that子句= (It is) needless to say (that)子句= It is obvious that子句= Obviously, S.+ V.例不用说早睡早起是值得的。 It goes without saying that it pays to keep early hours.2.是不可能的;无法

There is no V+ing = There is no way of V+ing.= There is no possibility of V+ing.= It is impossible to V.= It is out of the question to V.= No one can V.= We cannot V.例不可否认的?成功的事业关键在于健康的身心。

There is not denying that successful business lies in a healthy body and mind.3.我深信

I am greatly convinced (that)子句= I am greatly assured (that)子句例我深信预防是于治疗。

I am greatly convinced that prevention is better than cure.4.在各种之中?

Among various kinds of ,= Of all the ,例在各种运动中我尤其喜欢慢跑。

Among various kinds of sports, I like jogging in particular.5.是很容易证明的。

It can be easily proved (that)子句例时间最珍贵是很容易证明的。 It can be easily proved that nothing is more precious than time.6.无论如何强调都不为过 cannot be overemphasized

例交通安全的重要性无论如何强调都不为过。

The importance of traffic safety cannot be overemphasized.7.就我的看法;我认为

In my opinion,= To my mind,。= As far as I am concerned,= I am of the opinion that子句

例就我的看法打电动玩具既花费时间也有害健康。

In my opinion, playing video games not only takes much time but is also harmful to health.8.(A)每个人都知道 Everyone knows (that)子句(B)就我所知

As far as my knowledge is concerned,例就我所知下列方法对我帮助很大。 As far as my knowledge is concerned, the following ways are of great help to me.9.毫无疑问地

There is no doubt (that)子句

例毫无疑问地近视在我国的年轻人中是一个严重的问题。

There is no doubt that near-sightedness is a serious problem among the youth of our country.10.根据我个人经验

According to my personal experience,= Based on my personal experience,例根据我个人经验微笑已带给我许多好处。

According to my personal experience, smile has done me a lot of good.11.俗语说得好:“”。

Well goes an old saying,“”= As an old saying goes(runs, says),“”= An old saying goes,“”= It’s an old saying (that)子句例俗话说得好:“诚实为上策”。

As an old saying goes,“Honesty is the best policy.”12.(A)用下列方法 in the following ways.(B)有三个主要理由。 for three major reasons.

(C)要至少我们可做三件事。 To , there are at least three things we can do.例(A)我用下列方法增加信心。

I increase my confidence in the following ways.(B)人们学外语有三个理由。

People learn a foreign language for three major reasons.(C)为了维护健康我们每天至少可做三件事。

To keep healthy, there are at least three things we can do every day. II.用于文章承转句13.那就是(说);亦即

That is to say,= That is,= Namely,例我们生活需有规律。也就是说早睡早起戒除烟酒。

We need to live a regular life. That is, we can keep good hours and refrain from smoking and drinking in the daily activities.14.(A)基于这个理由 For this reason,(B)为了这个目的 For this purpose,例基于这个理由我已决定把行医作为未来的职业。

For this reason, I have decided to take practicing medicine as my future career.15.我们有理由相信

We have reasons to believe (that)子句例我们有理由相信体罚应该严格禁止。

We have reasons to believe that corporal punishment should be strictly prohibited.16.事实上

As a matter of fact,= In fact,例事实上健康才是最重要。

As a matter of fact, it is health that counts.17.(A)例如 For example,(B)拿做例子 Take for example.

例例如我们盲目地提高生活水准却降低生活品质。

For example, we elevate the living standards blindly, but lower the quality of life.18.此外我们不应忽视

Besides (In addition), we should not neglect 例此外我们不应忽视每个人都想要一个温馨祥和的社会。

In addition, we should not neglect that everyone wants a friendly and peaceful society.19.相反地

on the contrary,= by contrast,

例相反地少数学生似乎还在鬼混。 On the contrary, a few students, it seems, are still fooling around.20.另一方面 on the other hand,

例政府应严格执法,另一方面,大众也应该培养减少污染的好习惯。

The government should enforce laws strictly. On the other hand, the public also should develop the good habit of reducing pollution.21.然而,很可惜的是 However, it is a pity that子句例然而,很可惜的是他总是临时抱佛脚。

However, it is a pity that he should always cram at the eleventh hour.22.换言之, in other words,= to put it differently 例换言之,我会尽最大的努力达成我的目标。

In other words, I will try my best to attain (gain, live up to) my goal.23.别人可能认为这是事实,但我不是。我认为

It may be true as assumed by others, but I don’t. I believe that子句例别人可能认为这是事实,但我不是。我认为

It may be true as assumed by others, but I don’t. I believe that if you have strong determination and perseverance, the success will certainly come to you in the end.24.从此之后,我已发现

Ever since then, I have found that子句例从此之后,我已发现

Ever since then, I have found smile the best way to avoid any possible conflicts in our daily lives.25.这样说来,假如当然毫无疑问地

In this light, if, there can surely be no doubt (that)子句例这样说来,假如我们能善用时间,当然毫无疑问地我们会成功。

In this light, if we can make good use of time, there can surely be no doubt that we will get somewhere.26.更严重的是,

What is more serious is (that)子句例更严重的是,我们不珍惜野生动物。

What is more serious is that we do not cherish the wildlife.27.鉴于社会的实际需要,

In view of the practical need of society,例鉴于社会的实际需要,愈来愈多人对学英语有兴趣。

In view of the practical need of society, there are more and more people interested in learning English. III.用于文章结论句28.如果能实践这三点,

If one can really put the three points into action (practice),例如果能实践这三点,

If one can really put the three points into action(practice), he will surely be able to live a healthy and happy life.29.做这些简单之事,我们一定可以

By doing these simple things, we surely can 例做这些简单之事,我们一定可以快乐出门平安回家。

By doing these simple things, we surely can go out of the door happily and come back home safe every day.30.如此,我相信 In this way, I believe (that)子句例如此,我相信大家能够像我一样,享受乘坐公车的乐趣。

In this way, I believe that all the people may be able to enjoy the bus ride like me.31.在我认识的人当中也许没有一个人比更值得我尊敬。Of all the people I know, perhaps non deserves my respect more than 例在我认识的人当中也许没有一个人比我的英文老师张老师更值得我尊敬。 Of all the people I know, perhaps non deserves my respect more than Miss Chang, my English teacher.32.在我的求学过程中我忘不了 In the course of my schooling. I will never forget

例在我的求学过程中我忘不了学习英文所遭到的大困难。

In the course of my schooling. I will never forget the great difficulty I encountered in learning English.33.(A)随着人口的增加 With the increase/growth of the population,(B)随着科技的进步, With the advance of science and technology,例随着台湾经济的快速发展许多社会问题产生了。

With the rapid development of Taiwan’s economy, a lot of social problems have come to pass.34.(A)在这信息的年代扮演重要的角色。

In the age of information and communication, plays an important role. B)在今日工业社会中是生命不可或缺的。

In today’s industrial society, is indispensable to life.例在这信息的年代计算机扮演非常重要的角色。

In this age of information and communication, the computer plays an extremely important role.35.在讨论一个人不得不承认。

In dealing with , one cannot but admit (that)子句

例在讨论未来的职业一个人不得不承认尽早决定未来的职业很重要。

In dealing with one’s future career, one cannot but admit that it is very important to decide one’s future career as early as possible.36.世上没有什么比更令我高兴。

Nothing in the world can delight me so much as 例世上没有什么比到快餐店吃汉堡更令我高兴。

Nothing in the world can delight me so much as having hamburgers in fast-food restaurants.37.是必要的 It is necessary that S (should) V 是重要的 It is important/essential that S (should) V 是适当的 It is proper that S (should) V 是紧急的 It is urgent that S (should) V 例我们当保持公共场所清洁是应当的。

It is proper that we (should) keep the public places clean.38.每当我听到我就忍不住感到兴奋。Whenever I hear , I cannot but feel excited.每当我做我就忍不住感到悲伤。 Whenever I do , I cannot but feel sad.每当我想到我就忍不住感到紧张。Whenever I think of , I cannot but feel nervous.每当我遭遇我就忍不住感到害怕。Whenever I meet with , I cannot but feel frightened.每当我看到我就忍不住感到惊讶。Whenever I see , I cannot but feel surprised.例每当我想到我家附近那一条清澈的小溪我就忍不住感到悲伤。

Whenever I think of the clean brook near my home, I cannot but feel sad.= Every time I think of the clean brook near my home, I cannot help feeling sad.39.据说 It is said (that)子句一般认为 It is thought (that)子句大家都知道 It is known (that)子句据报导 It is reported (that)子句一般预料 It is expected (that)子句一般估计 It is estimated (that)子句一般相信 It is believed (that)子句

例一般相信阅读增加我们的知识、扩大我们的心胸。 It is believed (that) reading increases our knowledge and broadens our mind.40.的主要理由是 The main reason why is (that)子句

41.实践这些,… By putting them (the above) into practice,…例实践这些,在智育方面我一直能不断进步。

By putting them(the above) into practice, I have been able to make constant progress in intellectual education.

42.(A)唯有符合此三项要求,我们才能…

Only by living up to the three requirements, can we …

(B)唯有通力合作,我们才能… Only with combined efforts, can we …例唯有通力合作,我们才能期望台湾不久有新的面貌。

Only with combined efforts, can we expect Taiwan to take a new face in due course.43.最后,但并非最不重要,… Last but no least,…

例最后,但并非最不重要,教育上的缺失是助长青少年犯罪的原因。

Last but no least, the shortcoming in education is the cause contributing to juvenile delinquency.44.这证据显示~的重要性在怎么强调都不为过。

This evidence shows that the importance of ~ cannot be overemphasized.例这证据显示交通安全的重要性在怎么强调都不为过。

This evidence shows that the importance of traffic safety cannot be overemphasized.45.由于这些理由,我… For these reasons, I …例由于这些理由,我认为在台湾接受大学教育是明智的。

For these reasons, I think that receiving college education in Taiwan is wise.46.总而言之,… In conclusion,…= To sum up,…例总而言之,好国民应该遵守交通规则。

In conclusion, a good citizen should abide by traffic regulations.

47.因此,我们能下个结论,那就是… We can, therefore, come to the conclusion (that)子句

例因此,我们能下个结论,那就是世上自由罪珍贵。

We can, therefore, come to the conclusion that nothing is so precious as freedom in the world.48.如果我们能做到如上所述,毫无疑问地,… If we can do as mentioned above, there can be no doubt (that)子句

例如果我们能做到如上所述,毫无疑问地,我们就能精通英语。

If we can do as mentioned above, there can be no doubt that we can master English 49.因此,这就是…的原因。 Thus, this is the reason why …

例因此,这就是我重感冒的原因。

Thus, this is the reason why I caught a bad cold.

50.所以,我们应该了解… Therefore, we should realize (that)子句例所以,我们应该了解学英文不能没有字典。

Therefore, we should realize that in learning English we cannot do without a dictionary 51.因此,由上列的讨论我们可以明了 We, therefore, can make clear from the above discussion (that)子句

例因此?由上列的讨论我们可以明了毅力可以克服任何困难。 We, therefore, can make clear from the above discussion that perseverance can overcome any difficulty.52.1.从~观点来看, From the ~ point of view,2.根据~的看法, According to ~ point of view,