1. In this paper, we focus on the need for 2. This paper proceeds as follow.3. The structure of the paper is as follows.4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts 5. To begin with we will provide a brief background on the Introduction
1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined.2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.3. In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered. Review
1. This review is followed by an introduction.2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.3. In the next section, a brief review of the .... is given.4. In the next section, a short review of ... is given with special regard to ...5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.6. Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods. Body
1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance.2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making logic.3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx 4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding.5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed in terms of fuzzy time window 6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the ...7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ….. and also discusses how to evaluate system performance.8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx.10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.11. Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision rules 12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost variance investigation.15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process.17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model ..20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.22. Various ways of justification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model of human DM system 24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a ... scheme must satisfy.25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is order dense.26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions.27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments... This Section 1. In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is designed are described.2. We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.Next Section 2. The next section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.3. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section.4. The three components will be described in the next two section, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.5. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following sections.6. The next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for arguments based on xx Summary
1. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration in section 5.2. Section 5 summarizes the results of this investigation.3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research.4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper.5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized 6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn.7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper. Chapter 0. Abstract
1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithm.7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified.12. The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.13. Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.14. This paper analyses problems in 15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by ...16. This paper includes an illustration of the ...17. This paper provides an overview and information useful for approaching 18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated.19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx 20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.21. The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of: xx, xx 22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.23. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedure Chapter 1. Introduction Time1. Over the course of the past 30 years,.. has emerged form intuitive 2. Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world 3. The advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the 4. The development of ... is explored 5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions 6.The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years 7. There has been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance with the advent of ...8. A major concern in ... today is to continue to improve...9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.10. At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx 11. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.12. The pioneer work can be traced to xx .13. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems. Objective / Goal / Purpose
1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.3. The paper concerns the development of a xx 4. The scope of this research lies in 5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rule based decision making.6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit ...7. The objectives of the ... operations study are as follows:8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of 9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide 10. The main objective of such a ... system is to 11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution.12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements:13. In order to take advantage of their similarity 14. more research is still required before final goal of ... can be completed 15. In this trial, the objective is to generate...16. for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues 17. A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methods 20. This illustration points out the need to specify 21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.22. Chapter 2. Literature Review 23. A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xx 24. A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decade 25. A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.26. There is considerable amount of literature on planning 27. However, these studies do not provide much attention to uncertainty in xx.28. Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications.29. Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.30. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attention of system analysis.31. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of 32. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.33. Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.34. The central issue in all these studies is to 35. The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.36. Applied ... techniques to 37. Characterized the ... system as 38. Developed an algorithm to 39. Developed a system called ... which 40. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce 41. Emphasized the need to 42. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology 43. A comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken 44. Much work has been reported recently in these filed 45. Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/ Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights 46. Point out that the problem of 47. A study on ...was done / developed by 48. Previous work, such as  and , deal only with49. The approach taken by  is 50. The system developed by  consists 51. A paper relevant to this research was published by 52.'s model requires consideration of...53.' model draws attention to evolution in human development 54.'s model focuses on...55. Little research has been conducted in applying ... to 56. The published information that is relevant to this research...57. This study further shows that 58. Their work is based on the principle of 59. More history of ... can be found in xx et al..60. Studies have been completed to established 61. The ...studies indicated that 62. Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking. Problem / Issue / Question 63. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.64. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems 67.... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved 68. Two major problems have yet to be addressed 69. An unanswered question 70. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.71. An additional research issue to be tackled is ....72. Some important issues in developing a ... system are discussed 73. The three prime issues can be summarized:74. The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ...75. There have been many attempts to 76. It is expected to be serious barrier to 77. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex
 It is widely(commonly) accepted(held) that…(某一观点)得到了广泛认同
 A widely (commonly) accepted idea(point of view, viewpoint, opinion )is that…
 We often/frequently take it for granted that…我们想当然的认为…….
 However (But),…但是(然而) However, it is not (quite, necessarily) the case.然而事实并非一贯如此. However, this is not (quite, necessarily) the case and needs to be further considered/discussed.然而事实并非一贯如此,还需要斟酌一番.
3.先立论,再驳论(将1、2综合起来) Although everyone believes that …, I wonder whether the argument bears much analysis.虽然大家都认为…,我却觉得它经不起推敲. Contrary to widely accepted views, I believe that…与大家的观点相反,我认为…… Although it is commonly held that …, it is unlikely to be true that …虽说普遍认为……,(某一观点)却不太正确.
 There is an element of truth in these statements, but they ignore a deeper and more important fact that …这些观点有它们的正确之处,但他们都忽略了一个更深层次,更重要的事实……
 What these people fail to consider is that …这些人忽略了……
 There is a general discussion today about the issue of … Those who object to it argue that …. They believe that …, But people who favor it, on the other hand, argue that ….现在……问题正被广泛讨论,反对它的人争论说……,他们认为……,另一方面,赞成它的人却力辩说…….
1、说明原因和理由(分析问题) The reason lies in several aspects.原因存在于几方面. There are several remarkable reasons.有几个很重要的原因 One may think of the trend as a result of …
 The change in … largely results from the fact that …
……的变化主要是由……导致的. There are several causes for this significant growth in … First…, Second…, Finally….……的显著增长有以下几个原因.首先……,其次……,最后…….
 We may cite/quote/take a single/common example to illustrate…我们仅举一例就可说明……
 Let's take an example/some examples to illustrate …让我们举例来说明……
三、结论语(总结问题) From what has been discussed above, we may safely arrive at/draw/come to/reach the conclusion that …综上所述,我们可以得出如下结论……
 In conclusion,…(In short,…; In a word,…)总之……
Although much effort has been made, the situation is far from satisfactory 虽说已经作了很大努力,形势仍不尽人意.
It is high time that we put considerable/great/special emphasis on …是我们重视……问题的时候了
We must look for an immediate method, because the present situation of …, if permitted to continue, will sure lead to/result in…。我们需要马上找到一个解决办法，如果让……按目前形势继续发展，它将会导致……
四、提出解决办法（解决问题） There is no immediate solution to the problem of …, but sth might be helpful/beneficial.……问题无法立刻解决，但……可能对它有益
 No easy method can be at hand to solve the problem of …, but the general awareness of the significance / harm of … might be the first step on the right way.现在还没有任何简易方法能解决这一问题，但公众对于……的必要性（重要性）的认识应该是第一步
 It is, therefore, obvious/evident that the task of … require immediate attention.所以，很明显……的任务应该马上引起我们的重视。
a,…is higher/lower/increase/decrease…in/by/withor after the administration of A than/compared with B； b, Significantlyincreased/decreased…was observed in A compared with B。 c, significant differencesin…were observed/witnessed between A and B； d, Enhanced/Decreased…inresponse to A/B was observed…; e, A showedsignificant/better effect on …than/compared with B; f, Asignificantly decreased/increase/improve …。2）如果差异有趋势，可以这样描述： a, A similartrend was observed in…; b, A compared toC additionally trended to…； c,…tend to…in Acompared with B；
d, A tendencytowards higher/lower…was seen in…。3）如果差异不显著或结果类似，可以这样描述：
a, No impact ofA/B/(A and B) on…was demonstrated in the presented experiment； b, No effect on…occurredwith or after the administration of A/B/(A and B)； c, No differencein…was observed/witnessed between A and B； d, There was nodifference in…； e,…in A and Bdid not differ；
f,…was notsignificantly altered by …-treatment…；
g,…was similarin all (between) groups and ranged from …to…。4）如果两因素之间存在相互关系，比如干预和时间效应，可以这样描述：
a, A treatment ×period interaction/An interaction of treatment × week was observed for…as…（描述指标随时间变化）；
b, There was an interactionof treatment × time for…。
a,…in A and Bdid not differ, but … tended to be higher/lower with/in A/B；
b,…remained at arelatively low level, although a trend was observed for the increase/decreasein A/B in comparison with B/A；
c, A/B were not foundto affect/have no effect on…, but tendency to…was observed in B/A； d, Despite/Inspite of no effect on…, A/B significantly increased/improved…；
e, Similartendencies, albeit not confirmed statistically/although not statisticallysignificant, were observed in the remaining groups in which patients were…；
f, A negativeeffect of…on…and a positive effect on…were observed。第二，在描述相关性分析时，可以用：
a,…is verynegative significant correlated with …；
b, There is asignificant negative correlation between…and…； c, Rises in…paralleledincrease in…；
d,…revealed asignificant correlation with…； e, There was aninteraction between…and…。第三，对生存分析的结果描述：
a, Survival curvesaccording to Kaplan-Meier showed:1. Survival at…years is…%, with 95% CIbetween…and...; 2. Survival estimate is…% at ... years；
b, Theoverall…-,…- and …-year survival rates of…were…%,…% and…%, respectively;
c, The overallsurvival rates of…were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier, with…%,…% and…% at…,…and… years, respectively；
d, The survivorshipanalysis (Kaplan-Meier) showed a…% survival of…after…years.第四，针对诊断方法的灵敏度分析：
a, ROC analysis of …..determined that the cut-off valueof…yielded a sensitivity of…%, specificity of …%,… of …%, and…of…%；
b, A cut-off value of…resulted in a sensitivity,specificity,…and…of…%,…%,…% and…%, respectively。医学SCI论文写作常用句式引言部分
引言部分其中一个重要功能就是说明本文的重要性，阐述本文的创新性及意义。我们可以用However 等转折关联词来引导前人研究的不足，提出一种新方法或新方向。如： However, little information/attention/work/data/research…(or few studies/investigations/researchers/attempts…)(or no/none of these studies) has (have) been done on/focused on/attempted to/conducted/investigated/studied (with respect to)…。 Previous research/studies/records has/have failed toconsider/ignored/misinterpreted/neglected these previous results are to/overestimated/underestimated/misleaded….Thus, inconclisive/misleading/unsatisfactory/questionable/controversial. Their studies may be more reasonable if they had…consideredthis situation. Their results could be better convinced if they… Their conclusion may remain some uncertainties。
However, data is still scarce/rare/less accurate, we needto/aim to/have to provide more documents/data/records/studies/increase thedataset. Further studies are still necessary/essential…。 In the current study we tested the hypothesis that a policy of active management of nulliparous labour would:1. reduce the rate of caesarean section,2. reduce the rate of prolonged labour;3. not influence maternal satisfaction with the birth experience。
This study aim to/This paper reports on/This paper provides results/This paperextends the method/This paper focus on…；
The purpose of this paper is to…；
Furthermore/Moreover/In addition, we will also discuss…。
To develop the methods for isolation and cultivation of A. To culture sth from surgical iridectomy specimens of eyes with and withoutA. The effect of various Xs on the growth, melanogenesis and dendrificationof cultured Cs were studied.病因
As are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of eye diseases, the mostimportant of which is A, the most common intraocular tumor. A also contribute to the pathogenesis of X1 and X2.文献回顾
During the past 2 decades, much work has been done to isolate andcultivate C1 and C2 and to investigate the function of these cells in vitro.PGs play important physiopathological and therapeutic roles in the eye.Several PGs have been studied for their effects on the reduction of IOP andtheir role in the treatment of A.引起人们重视
During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in therelationship between exposure to light and the development of certain eyediseases, including A1, A2, and A3.研究未明
Little/(very little)is known about/(concerning) There have been only afew attempts to---，and no systematic attempts to Little work has been performedon--- The role of remains tobe elucidated/ clarified. Compared with ourknowledge of ---，littleis known about---. Even less is known about its---. However, the effectsof---have not been investigated thoroughly.---has never been satisfactorilyexplained.Although many studies of ---have been reported and it is well establishedthat EM do produce melanin in vivo, little is known about melanogenesis by A. Little work has been performed on melanogenesis by A in vitro. Investigation of melanogenesis by A in vitro has been hampered by aninability to obtain a sufficient number of pure A for study. The role of the iris in normal function and in disease remains to beelucidated.仍有争议
---remains controversial. Whether A produce melanin in vivo during adulthood remains controversial. The literature about the sth remains scant.新进展
Sb has developed and report here new methods for A We have developed methods for A Recent advances in techniques of--- suggested---Recently, it has been found that melanin from the uvea could stimulate A1and may be involved in the pathogenesis of A2 and the A3. We have developed methods for isolation and culture of A.保护作用
Ocular pigmentation, particularly ---, may play an important protectiverole in prevention of these diseases.研究目的
The purpose of the present study was to investigate melanogenesis by A invitro. We wanted to explore specifically whether A produce melanin in vitro,whether melanin content and melanin production by A in vitro correlate withiris pigmentation, whether cultured A express --- activity, and whether ---activity of A correlates with ---,--- and ---. We also wanted to study factors influencing melanin content andproduction, as well as the ---activity of A in vitro.比较分析
Recently epidemiological and molecular biological studies indicate that A1is different from A2 and similar to A3, e.g., the occurrence of A1 isrelatedto the sunlight exposure and mutation of BRAF gene, whereas the C2 are not. The difference between the A1 and A2 may be determined by the differentenvironmental and cellular factors of the C1 and C2. These results indicated that X only stimulated cell growth at a highconcentration. After supplementation with X, A growth was stimulated, but mitoticactivity declined rapidly after a few passages. These effects were dose-dependent at the range from --- to --- M 统计学
The differences of X and cell counts between the control and test groupswere statistically significant (cell number:0.05> P>0.01 atconcentrations of ---M in complete medium, at --- M in --- medium, and P<0.01 at concentrations of --- M in --- medium). The differences between the X treated culture and negative controls weresignificant at concentrations of 1010-5 MIn the study on/(of the) cAMP-deleted medium, the number of cellsincubated with X at all concentrations showed no significant differencecompared with the negative controls. This method provides a valuable source of large numbers of Cs, which canbe used to study their biological behavior, to compare with the A; and to comparethem to their malignant counterparts in the exploration of the pathogenesis of A.关于SCI论文写作常用精彩句式，我们就讲解并汇总到这里，接下来要靠的是大家的坚持和智慧去写出好文章了。
Introducing your work
The study will begin by outlining...
This study addresses a number of issues... Chapters X and X concentrate on... The following section sets out...
...to examine the research problem in detail
...to shed light on a number of problem areas in current theory The paper presented here is based in part on an earlier study
Defining the scope of your study
The focus of the study is...
The central question to be examined in this paper is... The study is important for a number of reasons: Present understanding of...is limited. Many authors would agree that...
Previous studies have shown or suggested that...
The problem has been much discussed in recent literature. This approach has a number of advantages: firstly,... The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that... A fuller discussion of...will appear in a later publication.
Arguing for and against
This point is particularly relevant to... This becomes clear when one examines... This lends weight to the argument that...
Support for this interpretation comes from... To put it another way,... This raises the question whether...
While it may well be valid that..., this study argues the importance of... This begs the question why...
A serious drawback of this approach is...
One of the prime failings of this theory or explanation is...
Reviewing other work
X's study is a textbook example of...
X's work has had a profound influence on...
The study contains a number of new and important insights: X makes a strong case for...
X takes little or no account of...
There is little evidence to suggest that... It is very much an oversimplification to...
The study offers only cursory examination of...
X gives a detailed if not always tenable analysis of... The authors' claim that...is not well founded. X's explanation is not implausible, if not entirely satisfactory.
Analysis and explanation
One tentative proposal might be that... If, for the sake of argument, we assume... One of the most obvious consequences of...is... This would appear to be supported by... There is some evidence to suggest that...
The importance of...is demonstrated clearly by...
Although it may well be true that..., it is important not to overlook... It is important to distinguish carefully between... It is not necessarily the case that...
The extent to which this reflects...is unclear. A more plausible explanation for or of...would...
The reason for...is unknown, but...has been suggested by X as a possible factor.
Summary and conclusions
Concluding this section, we can say that...
Chapter X draws together the main findings of the paper. The study has gone some way towards understanding... A number of key issues have been addressed in this study. The results lend strong support to...
This study has highlighted a number of problem areas in existing theory. While the initial findings are promising, further research is necessary. This raises a number of questions for future research.
The results of this study suggest a number of new avenues for research.
1.xx 的特征在于: xx is characterized by…
2.xx 的2个重要特征是：Two critical characteristics of xx are …
3.爱因斯坦指出xx 的特征如下：Einstein identified the following characteristicsof xx…
4.Generally,…一般来讲，原则上…千万不要用in principle，此原则非彼原则也5.已经采用了：have adopted …6.近年来：in recent years
7.over/during the past 10 years.比如我们说SC 过去10年间发展很快，用over，over 是一段时间的事儿；during 是事情发生在什么期间，有时间点的意思。8.出于各种原因：for a variety of reasons 9.此外，另外：moreover, in addition 10.即：“…, namely …”
11.A 与B 的区别在于：A and B differ in the terms of …12.谈及，关于：In terms of…
13.这些区别是因为：some of the difference stem from…14.为了让：In order for xx to …
15.很大程度上依赖于rely heavily on …16.基于… is based on…
17.不是…而是… not …, but rather …
18.这方面的例子有…“…, exemplified by …”
19.严格限制：impose the stringent restrictions on …;受到这些限制：besubject to the restrictions.
20.产生这个问题的原因与…有关：The problem arises in part from …[Tip]：多用although, however, while, moreover, in addition 这样的词儿，句子之间的逻辑关系显得很清楚，读paper 的人会觉得你的论文很清爽，
差别gaps between, differentiate between, discrepancies，no intergroup difference No statistically significant differences in survival were found for MMC or MPMA. Although MMC and MPMA decreased with increasing nuclear grade and TNM stage, this difference failed to achieve statistical significance.
存在，出现occurred, occurrence ,existed, existence, presence, present
多数，少数the overwhelming majority of, in the majority of cases ，a markedmajority, handful
方法approaches, avenues, methods, techniques, means, tools 发生率Incidence, frequency, prevalence
In contrast with regions of high incidence, the mutation spectrum did not show a high prevalence of mutations at A:T base pairs.发现，阐明，报道，证实verify, confirm, elucidate, identify, define, characterize, clarify, establish, ascertain, explain, observe, illuminate, illustrate，demonstrate, show, indicate, exhibit, presented, reveal, display, manifest，suggest, propose, estimate, prove, imply, disclose，report, describe，facilitate the identification of ，screening ，isolation
高，增加high, enhanced, elevated, increased, forced 各种，多种in multiple types of neoplasia, in various types of apoptosis, in a variety of tumors
关系，相关，参与closely involved in, associated,广泛的in an extensive survey
进行conducte， perform, carry out,
降，少，缺decrease, reduction, reduced, diminish, loss, suppression, deficient, low, weak, faint, light, absence, absent, undetectable, lack ,defective, negative,poor,impaired, greatly reduced or completely absent, frequently lost or down-expressed, presented discontinuous and weaker expression, completely negative, was not detectable or dramatically reduced, very faint, was undetectable or barely detectable, no expression was found,角色，起作用role, part （limited, potential, early, possible role），serve antiapoptotic functions
难理解的，似谜的enigmatic (x remains enigmatic)潜在假定的potential, candidate, putative,缩写abbreviations 识别，辨别discernment 事件
Metastasis to the liver is a common event in clinical oncology. a putative tumor initiating event
a (more, extremely, highly, rather, fairly) common initial,
a common event in the signal transduction mechanisms of, in the signal transduction processes
a common event associated with the mechanisms of
a common early event in responses of, after high-dose chemotherapy a common event following gestational exposure to immunotoxicants a common event （that occurs） during apoptosis is……
a common event during oncogenic transformation, in neoplastic transformation that directly or indirectly involves activation of specific tyrosine kinase signaling pathways a common event through which a common event in vivo
a rather common event of unknown biological significance a common event resulting from heterogeneous aberrations
a common event regardless of histological subtyping, but does not bear any pejorative significance
a common event contributing to
a rare, common, prerequisite, central, major, transient, initiation, stressful, critical, crucial, secondary, independent, regulatory, early, earlier, late, later, subsequent, circumstantial, untoward, upstream, irreversible, very frequent event
提供，帮助provide, supply, help (to), contribute to, offer, allow, dedicate, devote, assist in 调节（失调，上调，下调）dis-regulation, dys-regulation, up-regulation, up-expression, over-expression, down-expression, down-regulation,
推测presume,speculate ,confer, conjecture ,guess, deduce，deduction (推论)无所不在地(表达，如MEN1)ubiquitously
显著,优先的prominent, pronounced, obvious, marked, predominant, strong, striking ,notable, Conspicuously, remarkably，significant, preferential, prevalence, prevalent,相关性
related, more relevant with ，the relevance of no intergroup difference，irrespective of
There was no significant correlation to gender, age, clinical symptoms, histology, T or N status, TNM stage, or tumor location.
Neither eNOS nor nNOS expression was associated with vascular density, tumor grade or the TNM status of the tumors.
No correlations were found between bFGF and age, menopausal status, TNM or pTNM, histology, SBR grading or steroid receptors.
we did not find any correlation between bax expression and any clinicopathologic parameters (sex, age, TNM status, tumor grade, histological type).相同，同等并列
The coordinated induction of all three FOXO3a targets prompted us to examine the status of FOXO3a itself
with a similar pattern to 协同，加强
研究analysis, survey, study, research, investigation, experiments, trial, observations, assessment, inquiry, examinations ,pursue investigation into, analyze, detect, determinate, be focused on, measure, examine, test, assess, evaluate, explore,一致
which is in accord with the results which corroborated the results which supported the results
优缺点merits and drawbacks，beneficial and detrimental 异常aberration, abnormality
重要crucial, key, important, major, be of critical importance 相反
On the contrary, In contrary,
but quite on the contrary in sharp contrast,
contrary to what would be expected Contrary to the expectation that Contrary to previous beliefs,
Contrary to the hypothesis,
Contrary to current popular truisms Contrary to current cognitive theories, However, contrary to expectation,……. Contrary to predictions,…
in contrast to previous observations… Contrary to prediction,……
Contrary to most previous claims,
与一起in combination with, coupled with 由于、鉴于 In light of In view that
① When asked about…, most/many/quite a few people say/think/believe that…. But other people regard/see/think of …as…. I think/view quite/a bit differently.
② When it comes to…, some people think/believe that….Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true. There is probably some truth in both arguments/statements, but….③ There is a public/general debate/discussion today/nowadays on/about/over the problem/issue of….Those who oppose/object…contend/argue that….They believe that….But people who advocate/favour…, on the other hand, they maintain/assert that….④ Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/thought/recognized that….They argue/believe/claim that….But I wonder/doubt whether….(2)现象法
① Recently the phenomenon/problem of…has drawn/aroused public/grave/popular attention.② Recently the issue/problem/question of…has been in the limelight/ brought to public attention.③ In recent/the past 5 years, many cities/people have been faced/troubled/plagued with the/a(n) serious problem of/ alarming increase in burning/pressing/interesting questions/problems facing/confronting nation/society/world.(3)观点法
① Nothing/Few things/ No idea is/are more/as foolish/dangerous/important than/as…(which is widely/generally held by…).
② Never/Nowhere in history/ the world/China has the issue/change/idea of been more/as visible/evident/popular than/as….③ It is about/high time we shattered/freed ourselves from the myth/illusion about….④ Perhaps/Maybe we should/it is time to re-examine/have a fresh look at the idea/value/attitude that….(4)引用法
① One of the great early men/writers/scientists said/wrote/claimed that…if this is true/ the case. Then the present/current view/value should make us wonder/ think about whether….②“Knowledge is power.”/“Awareness of ignorance is the beginning of wisdom.” Such is the opinion of Bacon/ one of the great men.
③“…” That’s how one official/farther described/commented….He/She is hardly alone in the experience.
④“…” The same idea/attitude is voiced/shared by…(5)故事法
① Last Sunday/ Some months ago I/ a friend of mine....The story/incident is not rare/unusual. It is one/typical of thousands of…
② Once in a hospital/newspaper I saw/ read of….The problem/phenomenon/plight of…has drawn/aroused public/general attention/concern.
③ I have a friend/ A friend of mine who….Should/Can he…? Such a choice/problem we often meet/face in our daily life.
④ Once upon a time there was/lived a man….The tale/story may be invented/unbelievable but it still has a realistic significance now/today.2.文章结尾句型
① From what has been discussed above/ Judging from all evidence offered, we may safely/reasonably come to/reach/draw the conclusion/moral that….② The evidence upon all sides/ analysis we have made justifies/confirms/ leads to a(n) sound/unmistakable conclusion/idea that….③ In conclusion/ a word, it is more important/ we should….(2)后果性句型
① We must look/call for a(n) immediate/quick action/measure, because the present situation/state of…, if permitted/allowed to continue,…will surely lead to/ result in the end/ heavy cost of….② Obviously/ No doubt, if we can’t change/control/improve the situation, there is every chance/ it is very likely that…will be put in danger/trouble.③ Any person/nation who/which ignores/ is blind to the lesson/warning would pay a heavy price/ end in failure.(3)号召性句型
号召性句型主要用于呼吁读者行动起来,或敦促采取行动,或对某一问题提请注意.① It might be time take the warning/advice of…and to put/place great/special emphasis on the development/improvement of….② It is time that we put/urged an immediate end to the undesirable/unhealthy situation/tendency of….③ There is no doubt/denying that adequate/immediate attention must be paid/called to the problem/shortage of….(4)建议性句型
① It is hoped/suggested that great/considerable efforts should be made/exerted to attain/achieve to the goal.② In short/ any case, we/it should/must….③ We need to/ What we need is….④ It is high time/necessary that….Here are a few examples of some of the things/measures that might be done/taken immediately.3.原因结果句型
当分析和解释某一事物、某一现象时,可用这些句型来说明其基本的、多方面的原因.① There are probably many/several/ a number of reasons/causes for this marked/extraordinary increase/growth/change in….First…Second…Finally…② Why have/did/are…? For one thing/ One reason is….For another/ Another reason is….Perhaps the main/ most important reason is….③ It is fairly easy/ You don’t have to look very far to find out/identify the reason that/why….(2)另一原因
① Among the most sound/important reasons given/cited by people for…is/ one should be mentioned….② One of the most common/popular reasons/explanations for/why that….③ Part of the explanation for the rise/failure….④ This is due to/ because of several reasons. A(n) important/common reason is….(3)后果影响
① There are a number of dreadful/grave consequences of/ effects on….Perhaps the most potential/serious consequence/effect is….② The great/deep effect/influence the change makes/exerts/has on…is evident/apparent/obvious.③ It may cause/produce favourable/drastic/considerable rise/change…④ It leaves/brings some serious/great consequences of….4.比较对照句型
① The advantages gained in/of A far outweigh/ are much greater than advantages/benefits we gain from/in B.② Although A enjoys/has a(n) great/important advantage over…, it can’t compete/ be compared with B in….③ There are several/many advantages in/of….The first/biggest advantage is that….(2)两者相同
两者相同的句型用于表达两个比较的事物都有某种特点,或都没有某种特点.① A is/does no more…than/ not…any more than B is/does.② A is/does no less…than/ as much…/as to…as B is/does.③ As/ Just as A…, so B….④ The same is true/ of goes for/ applies to B.⑤ Like…
Similarly,Likewise, In the same way,⑥ A and B share/have several things in common. Both…(3)两者不同
两者不同的句型用于对照两个事物时,分析它们的差异、甚至截然相反的特点.① While on the one hand…, on the other hand….② A…, while/whereas/ on the other hand/ in contrast B….③ A and B differ/ are different in several ways. Unlike B, A….④ What A sees/regards…as…, B may think of/see…as….⑤ A….But the same cannot be said for/ applied to B.5.推理分析句型
① It seems quite/almost (un)likely/(im)possible/(in)credible that….② There is every chance/likelihood/possibility that….③ It is/seems clear/obvious/ no accident that….④ It is perhaps more/quite/fairly accurate/safe/reasonable to say that…⑤ Fortunately/Unfortunately, it is often/always the case that….(2)推理论说
本节句型主要通过假设、让步等推理手段来得出结论,表明作者的观点.① If this is the case/ it is true, we may….② This may be true/ the case if you….③ If…, it is simply/only because….④ Moreover/ Further more, if….⑤ Having recognized/accepted…, it follows that….6.细节支持句型
在文章中,为了说明作者的一个观点,往往需要引用具体实例来加以说明.①…is often/frequently cited/mentioned as a common/single example of….② A good/better case in point/example is/ can be best provided by…
③This offers/proves/shows a typical/striking/notable instance/example/illustration of…④ As a(n) example/illustration of…we may take/see…⑤ For example/ Take the case of a man who/ thing that….(2)事实证明
在文章论说中为了阐述一个观点,也需要用一些事实和调查的证据来支持.① No one can deny/doubt the hard/bare fact that….② We must/may face/accept/point out the undeniable/indisputable fact that….③ This reveals/demonstrates a(n) important/hard fact that….④ The idea/view is hardly/fully/amply supported/justified by facts/statistics.(3)数据引用
① According to a new/recent survey/poll,…jumped/rose/fell (by)…percent/ to…percent/ at a rate of…percent.② A study/report by…estimates/suggests that the rate/percentage of…is twice/half as muchas/ the…level….③ According to the official/reliable statistics/data, the rate/percentage has almost/more doubled/tripled compared with/since….7.承上启下句型
上面一段提出了观点,当下面一段要具体阐述这些观点时,可使用本节的句型.① To understand the truth/nature, it is necessary/essential to examine/analyze….② To get a sense of/ better understanding of how/what…, we must turn first to/ make a close study….③ To prove/illustrate this point, let us consider/ ask why/ look first at….(2)深入阐述
上面一段已从一个方面对某一观点进行了阐述,当要继续深入阐述时,可用本节句型.① But that’s only part of the story/explanation, perhaps the most significant/remarkable about…is….② Another equally important role/aspect/consideration is….③…may further be supported by/demonstrate….④…is but one of many aspects/roles/effects. Another is….(3)反面阐述
① Despite/ For all the difficulty/increase/cost….② On the other hand/ On the contrary/ In contrast….③ Rather than/ Instead of….
④ And the opposite/reverse is also true/ the case.