论文常用句式

范文1:学术论文常用句式

Beginning

1. In this paper, we focus on the need for 2. This paper proceeds as follow.3. The structure of the paper is as follows.4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts 5. To begin with we will provide a brief background on the Introduction

1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined.2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.3. In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered. Review

1. This review is followed by an introduction.2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.3. In the next section, a brief review of the .... is given.4. In the next section, a short review of ... is given with special regard to ...5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.6. Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods. Body

1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance.2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making logic.3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx 4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding.5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed in terms of fuzzy time window 6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the ...7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ….. and also discusses how to evaluate system performance.8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx.10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.11. Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision rules 12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost variance investigation.15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process.17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model ..20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.22. Various ways of justification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model of human DM system 24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a ... scheme must satisfy.25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is order dense.26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions.27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments... This Section 1. In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is designed are described.2. We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.Next Section 2. The next section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.3. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section.4. The three components will be described in the next two section, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.5. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following sections.6. The next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for arguments based on xx Summary

1. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration in section 5.2. Section 5 summarizes the results of this investigation.3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research.4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper.5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized 6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn.7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper. Chapter 0. Abstract

1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithm.7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified.12. The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.13. Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.14. This paper analyses problems in 15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by ...16. This paper includes an illustration of the ...17. This paper provides an overview and information useful for approaching 18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated.19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx 20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.21. The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of: xx, xx 22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.23. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedure Chapter 1. Introduction Time1. Over the course of the past 30 years,.. has emerged form intuitive 2. Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world 3. The advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the 4. The development of ... is explored 5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions 6.The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years 7. There has been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance with the advent of ...8. A major concern in ... today is to continue to improve...9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.10. At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx 11. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.12. The pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965].13. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems. Objective / Goal / Purpose

1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.3. The paper concerns the development of a xx 4. The scope of this research lies in 5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rule based decision making.6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit ...7. The objectives of the ... operations study are as follows:8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of 9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide 10. The main objective of such a ... system is to 11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution.12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements:13. In order to take advantage of their similarity 14. more research is still required before final goal of ... can be completed 15. In this trial, the objective is to generate...16. for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues 17. A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methods 20. This illustration points out the need to specify 21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.22. Chapter 2. Literature Review 23. A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xx 24. A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decade 25. A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.26. There is considerable amount of literature on planning 27. However, these studies do not provide much attention to uncertainty in xx.28. Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications.29. Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.30. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attention of system analysis.31. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of 32. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.33. Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.34. The central issue in all these studies is to 35. The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.36. Applied ... techniques to 37. Characterized the ... system as 38. Developed an algorithm to 39. Developed a system called ... which 40. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce 41. Emphasized the need to 42. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology 43. A comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken 44. Much work has been reported recently in these filed 45. Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/ Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights 46. Point out that the problem of 47. A study on ...was done / developed by []48. Previous work, such as [] and [], deal only with49. The approach taken by [] is 50. The system developed by [] consists 51. A paper relevant to this research was published by []52.[]'s model requires consideration of...53.[]' model draws attention to evolution in human development 54.[]'s model focuses on...55. Little research has been conducted in applying ... to 56. The published information that is relevant to this research...57. This study further shows that 58. Their work is based on the principle of 59. More history of ... can be found in xx et al.[1979].60. Studies have been completed to established 61. The ...studies indicated that 62. Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking. Problem / Issue / Question 63. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.64. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems 67.... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved 68. Two major problems have yet to be addressed 69. An unanswered question 70. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.71. An additional research issue to be tackled is ....72. Some important issues in developing a ... system are discussed 73. The three prime issues can be summarized:74. The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ...75. There have been many attempts to 76. It is expected to be serious barrier to 77. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex

范文2:英语议论文常用句式

议论文常用句式

一、用于文章开头(提出问题):

1.引述他人观点(为提出自己观点铺垫)

[1] It is widely(commonly) accepted(held) that…(某一观点)得到了广泛认同

[2] A widely (commonly) accepted idea(point of view, viewpoint, opinion )is that…

(某一观点)得到了广泛认同

[3] We often/frequently take it for granted that…我们想当然的认为…….

2.提出异议

[1] However (But),…但是(然而)[2] However, it is not (quite, necessarily) the case.然而事实并非一贯如此.[3] However, this is not (quite, necessarily) the case and needs to be further considered/discussed.然而事实并非一贯如此,还需要斟酌一番.

3.先立论,再驳论(将1、2综合起来)[1] Although everyone believes that …, I wonder whether the argument bears much analysis.虽然大家都认为…,我却觉得它经不起推敲.[2] Contrary to widely accepted views, I believe that…与大家的观点相反,我认为……[3] Although it is commonly held that …, it is unlikely to be true that …虽说普遍认为……,(某一观点)却不太正确.

[4] There is an element of truth in these statements, but they ignore a deeper and more important fact that …这些观点有它们的正确之处,但他们都忽略了一个更深层次,更重要的事实……

[5] What these people fail to consider is that …这些人忽略了……

[6] There is a general discussion today about the issue of … Those who object to it argue that …. They believe that …, But people who favor it, on the other hand, argue that ….现在……问题正被广泛讨论,反对它的人争论说……,他们认为……,另一方面,赞成它的人却力辩说…….

二、论述的展开:

1、说明原因和理由(分析问题)[1] The reason lies in several aspects.原因存在于几方面.[2] There are several remarkable reasons.有几个很重要的原因[3] One may think of the trend as a result of …

我们可以把这种趋势看成是……的结果

[4] The change in … largely results from the fact that …

……的变化主要是由……导致的.[5] There are several causes for this significant growth in … First…, Second…, Finally….……的显著增长有以下几个原因.首先……,其次……,最后…….

2、举例

[1] We may cite/quote/take a single/common example to illustrate…我们仅举一例就可说明……

[2] Let's take an example/some examples to illustrate …让我们举例来说明……

三、结论语(总结问题)[1] From what has been discussed above, we may safely arrive at/draw/come to/reach the conclusion that …综上所述,我们可以得出如下结论……

[2] In conclusion,…(In short,…; In a word,…)总之……

[3]Although much effort has been made, the situation is far from satisfactory 虽说已经作了很大努力,形势仍不尽人意.

[4]It is high time that we put considerable/great/special emphasis on …是我们重视……问题的时候了

[5]We must look for an immediate method, because the present situation of …, if permitted to continue, will sure lead to/result in…。我们需要马上找到一个解决办法,如果让……按目前形势继续发展,它将会导致……

四、提出解决办法(解决问题)[1] There is no immediate solution to the problem of …, but sth might be helpful/beneficial.……问题无法立刻解决,但……可能对它有益

[2] No easy method can be at hand to solve the problem of …, but the general awareness of the significance / harm of … might be the first step on the right way.现在还没有任何简易方法能解决这一问题,但公众对于……的必要性(重要性)的认识应该是第一步

[3] It is, therefore, obvious/evident that the task of … require immediate attention.所以,很明显……的任务应该马上引起我们的重视。

范文3:医学SCI论文写作常用句式

医学SCI论文写作常用句式结果部分

对一篇医学SCI论文来说,除了创新性和意义,最重要的就是展现论文的结果了。而针对不同的统计方法,结果描述也有所不同。如果您还只停留在一种句式,那样不仅会使文章显得死板,还会显得我们的英语非常匮乏。这里跟大家总结一下针对不同医学统计方法如何生动的描述结果。

首先,对于显著性差异分析:1)如果差异显著,可以这样描述:

a,…is higher/lower/increase/decrease…in/by/withor after the administration of A than/compared with B; b, Significantlyincreased/decreased…was observed in A compared with B。 c, significant differencesin…were observed/witnessed between A and B; d, Enhanced/Decreased…inresponse to A/B was observed…; e, A showedsignificant/better effect on …than/compared with B; f, Asignificantly decreased/increase/improve …。2)如果差异有趋势,可以这样描述: a, A similartrend was observed in…; b, A compared toC additionally trended to…; c,…tend to…in Acompared with B;

d, A tendencytowards higher/lower…was seen in…。3)如果差异不显著或结果类似,可以这样描述:

a, No impact ofA/B/(A and B) on…was demonstrated in the presented experiment; b, No effect on…occurredwith or after the administration of A/B/(A and B); c, No differencein…was observed/witnessed between A and B; d, There was nodifference in…; e,…in A and Bdid not differ;

f,…was notsignificantly altered by …-treatment…;

g,…was similarin all (between) groups and ranged from …to…。4)如果两因素之间存在相互关系,比如干预和时间效应,可以这样描述:

a, A treatment ×period interaction/An interaction of treatment × week was observed for…as…(描述指标随时间变化);

b, There was an interactionof treatment × time for…。

另外,在描述结果时,可以尽量将两个相关的结果写在一句话中,用关联词链接,既可以使上下文衔接紧密,又可避免流水账式写法。如:

a,…in A and Bdid not differ, but … tended to be higher/lower with/in A/B;

b,…remained at arelatively low level, although a trend was observed for the increase/decreasein A/B in comparison with B/A;

c, A/B were not foundto affect/have no effect on…, but tendency to…was observed in B/A; d, Despite/Inspite of no effect on…, A/B significantly increased/improved…;

e, Similartendencies, albeit not confirmed statistically/although not statisticallysignificant, were observed in the remaining groups in which patients were…;

f, A negativeeffect of…on…and a positive effect on…were observed。第二,在描述相关性分析时,可以用:

a,…is verynegative significant correlated with …;

b, There is asignificant negative correlation between…and…; c, Rises in…paralleledincrease in…;

d,…revealed asignificant correlation with…; e, There was aninteraction between…and…。第三,对生存分析的结果描述:

a, Survival curvesaccording to Kaplan-Meier showed:1. Survival at…years is…%, with 95% CIbetween…and...; 2. Survival estimate is…% at ... years;

b, Theoverall…-,…- and …-year survival rates of…were…%,…% and…%, respectively;

c, The overallsurvival rates of…were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier, with…%,…% and…% at…,…and… years, respectively;

d, The survivorshipanalysis (Kaplan-Meier) showed a…% survival of…after…years.第四,针对诊断方法的灵敏度分析:

a, ROC analysis of …..determined that the cut-off valueof…yielded a sensitivity of…%, specificity of …%,… of …%, and…of…%;

b, A cut-off value of…resulted in a sensitivity,specificity,…and…of…%,…%,…% and…%, respectively。医学SCI论文写作常用句式引言部分

引言部分其中一个重要功能就是说明本文的重要性,阐述本文的创新性及意义。我们可以用However 等转折关联词来引导前人研究的不足,提出一种新方法或新方向。如: However, little information/attention/work/data/research…(or few studies/investigations/researchers/attempts…)(or no/none of these studies) has (have) been done on/focused on/attempted to/conducted/investigated/studied (with respect to)…。 Previous research/studies/records has/have failed toconsider/ignored/misinterpreted/neglected these previous results are to/overestimated/underestimated/misleaded….Thus, inconclisive/misleading/unsatisfactory/questionable/controversial. Their studies may be more reasonable if they had…consideredthis situation. Their results could be better convinced if they… Their conclusion may remain some uncertainties。

当研究方法和方向与前人一样时,可通过以下方式强调自己工作:

However, data is still scarce/rare/less accurate, we needto/aim to/have to provide more documents/data/records/studies/increase thedataset. Further studies are still necessary/essential…。 In the current study we tested the hypothesis that a policy of active management of nulliparous labour would:1. reduce the rate of caesarean section,2. reduce the rate of prolonged labour;3. not influence maternal satisfaction with the birth experience。

This study aim to/This paper reports on/This paper provides results/This paperextends the method/This paper focus on…;

The purpose of this paper is to…;

Furthermore/Moreover/In addition, we will also discuss…。

范文4:SCI论文写作常用精彩句式汇总

SCI论文写作常用精彩句式汇总

SCI论文的书写,句型都不是自己凭空创造出来的,特别是对于写作新手,开始的时候都需要套用前人的文章“临摹”找找感觉,小编不才,我总结了一些常用句式分享给还在一线苦苦挣扎的朋友们。目的

To develop the methods for isolation and cultivation of A. To culture sth from surgical iridectomy specimens of eyes with and withoutA. The effect of various Xs on the growth, melanogenesis and dendrificationof cultured Cs were studied.病因

As are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of eye diseases, the mostimportant of which is A, the most common intraocular tumor. A also contribute to the pathogenesis of X1 and X2.文献回顾

During the past 2 decades, much work has been done to isolate andcultivate C1 and C2 and to investigate the function of these cells in vitro.PGs play important physiopathological and therapeutic roles in the eye.Several PGs have been studied for their effects on the reduction of IOP andtheir role in the treatment of A.引起人们重视

During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in therelationship between exposure to light and the development of certain eyediseases, including A1, A2, and A3.研究未明

Little/(very little)is known about/(concerning) There have been only afew attempts to---,and no systematic attempts to Little work has been performedon--- The role of remains tobe elucidated/ clarified. Compared with ourknowledge of ---,littleis known about---. Even less is known about its---. However, the effectsof---have not been investigated thoroughly.---has never been satisfactorilyexplained.Although many studies of ---have been reported and it is well establishedthat EM do produce melanin in vivo, little is known about melanogenesis by A. Little work has been performed on melanogenesis by A in vitro. Investigation of melanogenesis by A in vitro has been hampered by aninability to obtain a sufficient number of pure A for study. The role of the iris in normal function and in disease remains to beelucidated.仍有争议

---remains controversial. Whether A produce melanin in vivo during adulthood remains controversial. The literature about the sth remains scant.新进展

Sb has developed and report here new methods for A We have developed methods for A Recent advances in techniques of--- suggested---Recently, it has been found that melanin from the uvea could stimulate A1and may be involved in the pathogenesis of A2 and the A3. We have developed methods for isolation and culture of A.保护作用

Ocular pigmentation, particularly ---, may play an important protectiverole in prevention of these diseases.研究目的

The purpose of the present study was to investigate melanogenesis by A invitro. We wanted to explore specifically whether A produce melanin in vitro,whether melanin content and melanin production by A in vitro correlate withiris pigmentation, whether cultured A express --- activity, and whether ---activity of A correlates with ---,--- and ---. We also wanted to study factors influencing melanin content andproduction, as well as the ---activity of A in vitro.比较分析

Recently epidemiological and molecular biological studies indicate that A1is different from A2 and similar to A3, e.g., the occurrence of A1 isrelatedto the sunlight exposure and mutation of BRAF gene, whereas the C2 are not. The difference between the A1 and A2 may be determined by the differentenvironmental and cellular factors of the C1 and C2. These results indicated that X only stimulated cell growth at a highconcentration. After supplementation with X, A growth was stimulated, but mitoticactivity declined rapidly after a few passages. These effects were dose-dependent at the range from --- to --- M 统计学

The differences of X and cell counts between the control and test groupswere statistically significant (cell number:0.05> P>0.01 atconcentrations of ---M in complete medium, at --- M in --- medium, and P<0.01 at concentrations of --- M in --- medium). The differences between the X treated culture and negative controls weresignificant at concentrations of 1010-5 MIn the study on/(of the) cAMP-deleted medium, the number of cellsincubated with X at all concentrations showed no significant differencecompared with the negative controls. This method provides a valuable source of large numbers of Cs, which canbe used to study their biological behavior, to compare with the A; and to comparethem to their malignant counterparts in the exploration of the pathogenesis of A.关于SCI论文写作常用精彩句式,我们就讲解并汇总到这里,接下来要靠的是大家的坚持和智慧去写出好文章了。

范文5:一些英文sci论文常用的句式和短语

一些英文sci论文常用的句式和短语

Introducing your work

The study will begin by outlining...

This study addresses a number of issues... Chapters X and X concentrate on... The following section sets out...

...to examine the research problem in detail

...to shed light on a number of problem areas in current theory The paper presented here is based in part on an earlier study

Defining the scope of your study

The focus of the study is...

The central question to be examined in this paper is... The study is important for a number of reasons: Present understanding of...is limited. Many authors would agree that...

Previous studies have shown or suggested that...

The problem has been much discussed in recent literature. This approach has a number of advantages: firstly,... The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that... A fuller discussion of...will appear in a later publication.

Arguing for and against

This point is particularly relevant to... This becomes clear when one examines... This lends weight to the argument that...

Support for this interpretation comes from... To put it another way,... This raises the question whether...

While it may well be valid that..., this study argues the importance of... This begs the question why...

A serious drawback of this approach is...

One of the prime failings of this theory or explanation is...

Reviewing other work

X's study is a textbook example of...

X's work has had a profound influence on...

The study contains a number of new and important insights: X makes a strong case for...

X takes little or no account of...

There is little evidence to suggest that... It is very much an oversimplification to...

The study offers only cursory examination of...

X gives a detailed if not always tenable analysis of... The authors' claim that...is not well founded. X's explanation is not implausible, if not entirely satisfactory.

Analysis and explanation

One tentative proposal might be that... If, for the sake of argument, we assume... One of the most obvious consequences of...is... This would appear to be supported by... There is some evidence to suggest that...

The importance of...is demonstrated clearly by...

Although it may well be true that..., it is important not to overlook... It is important to distinguish carefully between... It is not necessarily the case that...

The extent to which this reflects...is unclear. A more plausible explanation for or of...would...

The reason for...is unknown, but...has been suggested by X as a possible factor.

Summary and conclusions

Concluding this section, we can say that...

Chapter X draws together the main findings of the paper. The study has gone some way towards understanding... A number of key issues have been addressed in this study. The results lend strong support to...

This study has highlighted a number of problem areas in existing theory. While the initial findings are promising, further research is necessary. This raises a number of questions for future research.

The results of this study suggest a number of new avenues for research.

英文文章常用表达和写法

1.xx 的特征在于: xx is characterized by…

2.xx 的2个重要特征是:Two critical characteristics of xx are …

3.爱因斯坦指出xx 的特征如下:Einstein identified the following characteristicsof xx…

4.Generally,…一般来讲,原则上…千万不要用in principle,此原则非彼原则也5.已经采用了:have adopted …6.近年来:in recent years

7.over/during the past 10 years.比如我们说SC 过去10年间发展很快,用over,over 是一段时间的事儿;during 是事情发生在什么期间,有时间点的意思。8.出于各种原因:for a variety of reasons 9.此外,另外:moreover, in addition 10.即:“…, namely …”

11.A 与B 的区别在于:A and B differ in the terms of …12.谈及,关于:In terms of…

13.这些区别是因为:some of the difference stem from…14.为了让:In order for xx to …

15.很大程度上依赖于rely heavily on …16.基于… is based on…

17.不是…而是… not …, but rather …

18.这方面的例子有…“…, exemplified by …”

19.严格限制:impose the stringent restrictions on …;受到这些限制:besubject to the restrictions.

20.产生这个问题的原因与…有关:The problem arises in part from …[Tip]:多用although, however, while, moreover, in addition 这样的词儿,句子之间的逻辑关系显得很清楚,读paper 的人会觉得你的论文很清爽,

论文写作常用词汇和短语

论文写作的一些常用词汇和短语,希望大家也能用得上:

差别gaps between, differentiate between, discrepancies,no intergroup difference No statistically significant differences in survival were found for MMC or MPMA. Although MMC and MPMA decreased with increasing nuclear grade and TNM stage, this difference failed to achieve statistical significance.

存在,出现occurred, occurrence ,existed, existence, presence, present

多数,少数the overwhelming majority of, in the majority of cases ,a markedmajority, handful

方法approaches, avenues, methods, techniques, means, tools 发生率Incidence, frequency, prevalence

In contrast with regions of high incidence, the mutation spectrum did not show a high prevalence of mutations at A:T base pairs.发现,阐明,报道,证实verify, confirm, elucidate, identify, define, characterize, clarify, establish, ascertain, explain, observe, illuminate, illustrate,demonstrate, show, indicate, exhibit, presented, reveal, display, manifest,suggest, propose, estimate, prove, imply, disclose,report, describe,facilitate the identification of ,screening ,isolation

改变change, alteration,

高,增加high, enhanced, elevated, increased, forced 各种,多种in multiple types of neoplasia, in various types of apoptosis, in a variety of tumors

关系,相关,参与closely involved in, associated,广泛的in an extensive survey

进行conducte, perform, carry out,

降,少,缺decrease, reduction, reduced, diminish, loss, suppression, deficient, low, weak, faint, light, absence, absent, undetectable, lack ,defective, negative,poor,impaired, greatly reduced or completely absent, frequently lost or down-expressed, presented discontinuous and weaker expression, completely negative, was not detectable or dramatically reduced, very faint, was undetectable or barely detectable, no expression was found,角色,起作用role, part (limited, potential, early, possible role),serve antiapoptotic functions

可能性feasibility 密切地intimately

难理解的,似谜的enigmatic (x remains enigmatic)潜在假定的potential, candidate, putative,缩写abbreviations 识别,辨别discernment 事件

Metastasis to the liver is a common event in clinical oncology. a putative tumor initiating event

a (more, extremely, highly, rather, fairly) common initial,

a common event in the signal transduction mechanisms of, in the signal transduction processes

a common event associated with the mechanisms of

a common early event in responses of, after high-dose chemotherapy a common event following gestational exposure to immunotoxicants a common event (that occurs) during apoptosis is……

a common event during oncogenic transformation, in neoplastic transformation that directly or indirectly involves activation of specific tyrosine kinase signaling pathways a common event through which a common event in vivo

a rather common event of unknown biological significance a common event resulting from heterogeneous aberrations

a common event regardless of histological subtyping, but does not bear any pejorative significance

a common event contributing to

a rare, common, prerequisite, central, major, transient, initiation, stressful, critical, crucial, secondary, independent, regulatory, early, earlier, late, later, subsequent, circumstantial, untoward, upstream, irreversible, very frequent event

提供,帮助provide, supply, help (to), contribute to, offer, allow, dedicate, devote, assist in 调节(失调,上调,下调)dis-regulation, dys-regulation, up-regulation, up-expression, over-expression, down-expression, down-regulation,

推测presume,speculate ,confer, conjecture ,guess, deduce,deduction (推论)无所不在地(表达,如MEN1)ubiquitously

显著,优先的prominent, pronounced, obvious, marked, predominant, strong, striking ,notable, Conspicuously, remarkably,significant, preferential, prevalence, prevalent,相关性

related, more relevant with ,the relevance of no intergroup difference,irrespective of

There was no significant correlation to gender, age, clinical symptoms, histology, T or N status, TNM stage, or tumor location.

Neither eNOS nor nNOS expression was associated with vascular density, tumor grade or the TNM status of the tumors.

No correlations were found between bFGF and age, menopausal status, TNM or pTNM, histology, SBR grading or steroid receptors.

we did not find any correlation between bax expression and any clinicopathologic parameters (sex, age, TNM status, tumor grade, histological type).相同,同等并列

The coordinated induction of all three FOXO3a targets prompted us to examine the status of FOXO3a itself

with a similar pattern to 协同,加强

synergize with

研究analysis, survey, study, research, investigation, experiments, trial, observations, assessment, inquiry, examinations ,pursue investigation into, analyze, detect, determinate, be focused on, measure, examine, test, assess, evaluate, explore,一致

which is in accord with the results which corroborated the results which supported the results

优缺点merits and drawbacks,beneficial and detrimental 异常aberration, abnormality

重要crucial, key, important, major, be of critical importance 相反

On the contrary, In contrary,

but quite on the contrary in sharp contrast,

contrary to what would be expected Contrary to the expectation that Contrary to previous beliefs,

Contrary to the hypothesis,

Contrary to current popular truisms Contrary to current cognitive theories, However, contrary to expectation,……. Contrary to predictions,…

in contrast to previous observations… Contrary to prediction,……

Contrary to most previous claims,

与一起in combination with, coupled with 由于、鉴于 In light of In view that

范文6:辩论赛场常用句式

无论对方一辩如何义正辞严,对方二辩如何雄辩滔滔,对方三辩如何舌灿莲花,对方四辩如何温柔一刀,您方都不能改变这样一个事实.....对方辩友有以偏概全之嫌哦

场合:对方逻辑是以点推面时,比如从夏惟桐很笨推出男人都很笨等

循环论证

场合:这是辩论里面经常发生的,为什么好马不吃回头草?因为好马不会吃不好的草,回头草是不好的,好马自然不会去吃....这当中跳过了论证,为什么回头草是不好的?

对方辩友滔滔不绝可惜的是对方辩友前提错了场合:对方的定义或者逻辑前提与己方不一致

对方辩友包天包地包辩题

场合:对方的立论完全把你的立论给吃了,比如和谐征纳关系靠管理/服务,正方把服务也算成了一种管理....

对方辩友是不是太霸道了呢?场合:上面的情况

对方辩友没有办法解决我说的问题,所以选择了回避场合:对面就是不正面回答的时候

无独有偶。。。。场合:自己总结

一问对方辩友....二问对方辩友.....三问.......场合:对手不回答时使用,但是其实没啥效果,对手仍旧不会回答,只是提醒评委而已不管对方说什么,都无限问“请问你能论证一下吗”比如他说“男人更需要关怀”

“请问你能论证一下为什么男人更需要关怀吗”“因为男人背负了更多”

“请问你能论证一下男人背负更多吗”“因为他们在别人眼里处于强势,但是实际却很脆弱”

“请问你能论证一下他们为什么处于强势?请你论证下为什么他们很脆弱?”。。。就这样,无论他们接着说啥,继续让他论证即可

赤裸裸

场合:自己总结

故人云以史为鉴可以知兴衰面对着东西方的历史我们不禁要问场合:自己总结。。的逻辑很有趣

场合:觉得对方逻辑很荒谬,又不好直说

请允许我继续阐述我方立场场合:对面时间用完了

价值的非理性违反场合:我也不太清楚啊

你把。。和。。做类比是不是把马嘴安在牛头上呢

场合:类比不当,比如说吃饭吃多了也不好所以是多的错而不是吃饭的错,推出上网上多了不好也是多的错而不是上网的错,这里吃饭和上网性质不同,不可类比

这些。。。。哪一个没有打上。。。的深深烙印呢。。场合:自己总结

面对对方辩友提出的无确定性的东西。。。。有争议但是没有争议的是。。。场合:对面的逻辑有合理性或者和自己逻辑有暗合时,承认其合理性,但是...

没有牙齿的老太太嚼牛筋白费口舌呢场合:余磊说的,我不怎么喜欢

字典中。。是有。。种意思没有一种符合对方辩友。。。的观点场合:我也不怎么喜欢,不过很适合压人

对方辩友。。说的。。。只是冰山一角场合:对面反复举极端例子

对方辩友别忙着扣帽子场合:对面异化立论

文字游戏

场合:对面摆明了和你玩花辩

断章取义

场合:自己琢磨

离题之嫌场合:跑题了

谢谢其实刚才一连串的争议都起源于对方一边开展论题时犯下的几个关键错误

我退一步说我再退一步我都退了好几步了都难以论证你方观点对方辩友又作何解释呢的确啊辩论是对于语言及文字的玩味今天的我们也很欣赏对方的四位同学玩味的能力玩味的前提是对基本的概念有一个规范有一个标准纸糊的月亮当太阳偷天换日呢= 偷换概念这些不都是地地道道的。。。因素吗

这个问题我方不知论证多少遍倒是对方辨友还没。。。。相思病看外科看内科。。

对方辩友终于退出那一步证明了我方观点谢谢对方辩友对方已经从逻辑理论事实价值证明了。。。。。。下面我进一步证明。。。。。。。听到。。。我不禁百感交集.例子比比皆是难道不是。。。的最佳例证吗。。。。。。。对方为何从始至终避而不答呢只有正视这个。。。事实。。才能更好的。。。。。。。是古往今来人们理性认识的结晶这难道是。。。历史的巧合吗

对方辩友面对这样的真知灼见至今未能幡然醒悟乔思比林思的那句话真理虽然稀少但总是供过于求。。。的例子横跨古今不胜枚举人类宇宙之精华万物之灵长请对方辩友不要对。。。视而不见

这个概念都搞不清楚还来辩论吗场合:这个最好别用了

一个严肃的辩论场需要一个严肃的概念对方多次问我们而不是问我们经验事实法则归纳出来的错误。。

倒果为因的错误

这是短兵交接的战斗。辩论双方在唇枪舌剑的较量中,往往呈现出尖锐的矛盾对立状态。而这对抗性,也正是辩论引人入胜的重要特征之一。对抗技巧的特点就在于针对同一事物能给出针锋相对的结论。

1.例证对抗

在论辩中,选取与对方所提及的相反的事例来与之对抗,从而构成尖锐对抗。如在“人性本善与人性本恶”中:

正方:对方辩友,请你们不要回避问题,台湾的正严法师救济安徽的大水,按你们的推论不就是泯灭人性吗?

反方:但是对方要注意到,8月28号《联合早报》业告诉我们,这两天新加坡游客要当心,因为台湾出现了千面迷魂大盗。(笑声,掌声)

当台湾大学队列举“正严法师”的例子时,如果复旦大学队就此是不是泯灭人性展开讨论,不仅难度大,而且将陷入被动。预示反方选取了“千面迷魂大盗”这一相反的实例,将对方的诘问有力地顶了回去,赢得了这一回合的胜利。

2.名言对抗

当对方引用名言来为其观点作证时,直接对名言进行反驳是不理智的。这时最好的办法是引用与对方相反的名言与之构成尖锐对抗。如:

反方:就义利作用而言,利是基础,是社会发展的原动力,而义呢,只是通过对利益关系的调节,来间接地影响社会发展。正是在对自身利益契而不舍的追求下,人类从洪荒蛮野走进现代化文明的瑰丽殿堂。法国哲学家爱尔维一语道破这种真谛:“利益是我们的唯一动力。”

正方:对方辩友跟我们说了一位法国人的话,那么我也想回赠对方一段法国人卢梭的话,他说:“爱人类,首先就要爱正义。”(掌声)

反方队从古今中外名家名言的宝库中找出爱尔维的话来论证重利的主张。同样,正方也从这一宝库中找出重义的名言来与之构成尖锐的对抗,使辩论更具有激动人心的色彩。

在论辩中要运用好名言对抗的技巧,平时对名言要有深厚的积累,辩论赛前更应准备好与对方观点相对应的名言卡片,以便运用。

3.史实对抗

当对方从历史典籍中挑选与对方观点有联系的史实来进行论辩时,我们也不妨从历史典籍中找出与对方观点相反的史料来与之构成对抗。可参照名言对抗,在此暂略。

4.数据引证

很简单,数字是一种非常有说服力的工具。不作赘述。

5.煽情对抗

煽情,就是通过公众的某些特殊利益,迎合公众的心理来挑拨“是非”,并凭借公众在情感上的好恶,把假象说成真相,或把某些问题推向极端,以次达到征服对方的目的。对于煽情的对手我们有时可以从另一个角度唤起公众对己方的支持和对对方的憎恶来与之构成尖锐对立,此谓“煽情对抗”。如关于“离婚率上升是社会文明的表现”中:

反方:我只想请大家设想一个很简单的场景,当越来越多的孩子在他们最需要关怀的时候,偏偏失去了健全的爱,这难道能说是社会文明的表现吗?正方:君不见,有多少孩子在父母的吵闹声中流着眼泪离家出走;又有多少孩子有家不愿回,流浪在外而误入歧途。他们是有一个家,然而,这样的家带给他们的又是什么呢?那么,对方是在承认错误了,对方勇于承认错误,那我将给对方一个改正错误的机会。。。。。。。

范文7:议论文常用句型

议论文常用句型1.文章开头句型

(1)对立法

文章开头首先引出人们对所议论的问题的不同看法,然后提出作者自己的不同看法,或偏向哪个看法.对立法的句型多用于有争议性的主题.

① When asked about…, most/many/quite a few people say/think/believe that…. But other people regard/see/think of …as…. I think/view quite/a bit differently.

② When it comes to…, some people think/believe that….Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true. There is probably some truth in both arguments/statements, but….③ There is a public/general debate/discussion today/nowadays on/about/over the problem/issue of….Those who oppose/object…contend/argue that….They believe that….But people who advocate/favour…, on the other hand, they maintain/assert that….④ Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/thought/recognized that….They argue/believe/claim that….But I wonder/doubt whether….(2)现象法

对某种社会现象、倾向或社会问题进行剖析的文章,往往在文章一开始首先引出这种现象或问题,然后展开评论.

① Recently the phenomenon/problem of…has drawn/aroused public/grave/popular attention.② Recently the issue/problem/question of…has been in the limelight/ brought to public attention.③ In recent/the past 5 years, many cities/people have been faced/troubled/plagued with the/a(n) serious problem of/ alarming increase in burning/pressing/interesting questions/problems facing/confronting nation/society/world.(3)观点法

文章开门见山,直截了当提出作者对文章要讨论的问题的观点,也即文章的中心思想.以下就是常用的句型.

① Nothing/Few things/ No idea is/are more/as foolish/dangerous/important than/as…(which is widely/generally held by…).

② Never/Nowhere in history/ the world/China has the issue/change/idea of been more/as visible/evident/popular than/as….③ It is about/high time we shattered/freed ourselves from the myth/illusion about….④ Perhaps/Maybe we should/it is time to re-examine/have a fresh look at the idea/value/attitude that….(4)引用法

文章开头,通过引用名人名言、格言谚语或有代表性的看法来引出文章要展开讨论的一种观点.下面便是一些常见句型.

① One of the great early men/writers/scientists said/wrote/claimed that…if this is true/ the case. Then the present/current view/value should make us wonder/ think about whether….②“Knowledge is power.”/“Awareness of ignorance is the beginning of wisdom.” Such is the opinion of Bacon/ one of the great men.

③“…” That’s how one official/farther described/commented….He/She is hardly alone in the experience.

④“…” The same idea/attitude is voiced/shared by…(5)故事法

文章开头讲一个故事,不仅可以引起读者的兴趣,而且可以引出文章要讨论的主题。以下是引出故事的句型。

① Last Sunday/ Some months ago I/ a friend of mine....The story/incident is not rare/unusual. It is one/typical of thousands of…

② Once in a hospital/newspaper I saw/ read of….The problem/phenomenon/plight of…has drawn/aroused public/general attention/concern.

③ I have a friend/ A friend of mine who….Should/Can he…? Such a choice/problem we often meet/face in our daily life.

④ Once upon a time there was/lived a man….The tale/story may be invented/unbelievable but it still has a realistic significance now/today.2.文章结尾句型

(1)结论性句型

结论性句型主要用于通过文章前后的讨论分析,列出文章的中心思想和论点.

① From what has been discussed above/ Judging from all evidence offered, we may safely/reasonably come to/reach/draw the conclusion/moral that….② The evidence upon all sides/ analysis we have made justifies/confirms/ leads to a(n) sound/unmistakable conclusion/idea that….③ In conclusion/ a word, it is more important/ we should….(2)后果性句型

本句型用于揭示如果所讨论的问题不能解决,或不采取某种行动的话将会产生什么样的后果.

① We must look/call for a(n) immediate/quick action/measure, because the present situation/state of…, if permitted/allowed to continue,…will surely lead to/ result in the end/ heavy cost of….② Obviously/ No doubt, if we can’t change/control/improve the situation, there is every chance/ it is very likely that…will be put in danger/trouble.③ Any person/nation who/which ignores/ is blind to the lesson/warning would pay a heavy price/ end in failure.(3)号召性句型

号召性句型主要用于呼吁读者行动起来,或敦促采取行动,或对某一问题提请注意.① It might be time take the warning/advice of…and to put/place great/special emphasis on the development/improvement of….② It is time that we put/urged an immediate end to the undesirable/unhealthy situation/tendency of….③ There is no doubt/denying that adequate/immediate attention must be paid/called to the problem/shortage of….(4)建议性句型

建议性句型主要用于在结尾处对文章所讨论的问题提出建设性意见,其中包括建议或具体解决问题的办法.

① It is hoped/suggested that great/considerable efforts should be made/exerted to attain/achieve to the goal.② In short/ any case, we/it should/must….③ We need to/ What we need is….④ It is high time/necessary that….Here are a few examples of some of the things/measures that might be done/taken immediately.3.原因结果句型

(1)基本原因

当分析和解释某一事物、某一现象时,可用这些句型来说明其基本的、多方面的原因.① There are probably many/several/ a number of reasons/causes for this marked/extraordinary increase/growth/change in….First…Second…Finally…② Why have/did/are…? For one thing/ One reason is….For another/ Another reason is….Perhaps the main/ most important reason is….③ It is fairly easy/ You don’t have to look very far to find out/identify the reason that/why….(2)另一原因

在分析了基本原因后,还要补充一个次要的或更重要的原因,可用这些句型。

① Among the most sound/important reasons given/cited by people for…is/ one should be mentioned….② One of the most common/popular reasons/explanations for/why that….③ Part of the explanation for the rise/failure….④ This is due to/ because of several reasons. A(n) important/common reason is….(3)后果影响

这些句型用于分析某一事物可能造成的后果或带来的影响。

① There are a number of dreadful/grave consequences of/ effects on….Perhaps the most potential/serious consequence/effect is….② The great/deep effect/influence the change makes/exerts/has on…is evident/apparent/obvious.③ It may cause/produce favourable/drastic/considerable rise/change…④ It leaves/brings some serious/great consequences of….4.比较对照句型

(1)两者比较

在进行两个事物比较时,要说一个事物超过另一事物,或肯定某事物的优点时也承认其缺点,可采用这些句型.

① The advantages gained in/of A far outweigh/ are much greater than advantages/benefits we gain from/in B.② Although A enjoys/has a(n) great/important advantage over…, it can’t compete/ be compared with B in….③ There are several/many advantages in/of….The first/biggest advantage is that….(2)两者相同

两者相同的句型用于表达两个比较的事物都有某种特点,或都没有某种特点.① A is/does no more…than/ not…any more than B is/does.② A is/does no less…than/ as much…/as to…as B is/does.③ As/ Just as A…, so B….④ The same is true/ of goes for/ applies to B.⑤ Like…

Similarly,Likewise, In the same way,⑥ A and B share/have several things in common. Both…(3)两者不同

两者不同的句型用于对照两个事物时,分析它们的差异、甚至截然相反的特点.① While on the one hand…, on the other hand….② A…, while/whereas/ on the other hand/ in contrast B….③ A and B differ/ are different in several ways. Unlike B, A….④ What A sees/regards…as…, B may think of/see…as….⑤ A….But the same cannot be said for/ applied to B.5.推理分析句型

(1)分析判断

本节句型用于分析观点,引出作者的判断及见解.

① It seems quite/almost (un)likely/(im)possible/(in)credible that….② There is every chance/likelihood/possibility that….③ It is/seems clear/obvious/ no accident that….④ It is perhaps more/quite/fairly accurate/safe/reasonable to say that…⑤ Fortunately/Unfortunately, it is often/always the case that….(2)推理论说

本节句型主要通过假设、让步等推理手段来得出结论,表明作者的观点.① If this is the case/ it is true, we may….② This may be true/ the case if you….③ If…, it is simply/only because….④ Moreover/ Further more, if….⑤ Having recognized/accepted…, it follows that….6.细节支持句型

(1)举例说明

在文章中,为了说明作者的一个观点,往往需要引用具体实例来加以说明.①…is often/frequently cited/mentioned as a common/single example of….② A good/better case in point/example is/ can be best provided by…

③This offers/proves/shows a typical/striking/notable instance/example/illustration of…④ As a(n) example/illustration of…we may take/see…⑤ For example/ Take the case of a man who/ thing that….(2)事实证明

在文章论说中为了阐述一个观点,也需要用一些事实和调查的证据来支持.① No one can deny/doubt the hard/bare fact that….② We must/may face/accept/point out the undeniable/indisputable fact that….③ This reveals/demonstrates a(n) important/hard fact that….④ The idea/view is hardly/fully/amply supported/justified by facts/statistics.(3)数据引用

在说明某个观点时,有时需要借用一些报刊、社会机构公布的调查数据和结果.

① According to a new/recent survey/poll,…jumped/rose/fell (by)…percent/ to…percent/ at a rate of…percent.② A study/report by…estimates/suggests that the rate/percentage of…is twice/half as muchas/ the…level….③ According to the official/reliable statistics/data, the rate/percentage has almost/more doubled/tripled compared with/since….7.承上启下句型

(1)承上阐述

上面一段提出了观点,当下面一段要具体阐述这些观点时,可使用本节的句型.① To understand the truth/nature, it is necessary/essential to examine/analyze….② To get a sense of/ better understanding of how/what…, we must turn first to/ make a close study….③ To prove/illustrate this point, let us consider/ ask why/ look first at….(2)深入阐述

上面一段已从一个方面对某一观点进行了阐述,当要继续深入阐述时,可用本节句型.① But that’s only part of the story/explanation, perhaps the most significant/remarkable about…is….② Another equally important role/aspect/consideration is….③…may further be supported by/demonstrate….④…is but one of many aspects/roles/effects. Another is….(3)反面阐述

上面一段提出了一种看法或观点,当下面一段要提出相反的观点并进行阐述时可使用这些句型.

① Despite/ For all the difficulty/increase/cost….② On the other hand/ On the contrary/ In contrast….③ Rather than/ Instead of….

④ And the opposite/reverse is also true/ the case.

范文8:机关公文常用句式

强了,笔杆子们赶紧收了吧-《机关公文常用排比句大全》作者:吴哲1、常用排比:

新水平、新境界、新举措、新发展、新突破、新成绩、新成效、新方法、新成果、新形势、新要求、新期待、新关系、新体制、新机制、新知识、新本领、新进展、新实践、新风貌、新事物、新高度;

重要性,紧迫性,自觉性、主动性、坚定性、民族性、时代性、实践性、针对性、全局性、前瞻性、战略性、积极性、创造性、长期性、复杂性、艰巨性、可讲性、鼓动性、计划性、敏锐性、有效性;

法制化、规范化、制度化、程序化、集约化、正常化、有序化、智能化、优质化、常态化、科学化、年轻化、知识化、专业化、系统性、时效性;

热心、耐心、诚心、决心、红心、真心、公心、柔心、铁心、上心、用心、痛心、童心、好心、专心、坏心、爱心、良心、关心、核心、内心、外心、中心、忠心、衷心、甘心、攻心;

政治意识、政权意识、大局意识、忧患意识、责任意识、法律意识、廉洁意识、学习意识、上进意识、管理意识;

出发点、切入点、落脚点、着眼点、结合点、关键点、着重点、着力点、根本点、支撑点;

活动力、控制力、影响力、创造力、凝聚力、战斗力;

找准出发点、把握切入点、明确落脚点、找准落脚点、抓住切入点、把握着重点、找准切入点、把握着力点、抓好落脚点;

必将激发巨大热情,凝聚无穷力量,催生丰硕成果,展现全新魅力。

审判工作有新水平、队伍建设有新境界、廉政建设有新举措、自身建设有新发展、法院管理有新突破;

不动摇、不放弃、不改变、不妥协;

政治认同、理论认同、感情认同;

是历史的必然、现实的选择、未来的方向。

多层次、多方面、多途径;

要健全民主制度,丰富民主形式,拓宽民主渠道,依法实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督2、常用短语:

立足当前,着眼长远,自觉按规律办事

抓住机遇,应对挑战:量力而行,尽力而为

有重点,分步骤,全面推进,统筹兼顾,综合治理,融入全过程,贯穿各方面,切实抓好,减轻,扎实推进,加快发展,持续增收,积极稳妥,落实,从严控制严格执行,坚决制止,明确职责,高举旗帜,坚定不移,牢牢把握,积极争取,深入开展,注重强化,规范,改进,积极发展,努力建设,依法实行,良性互动,优势互补,率先发展,互惠互利,做深、做细、做实、全面分析,全面贯彻,持续推进,全面落实、实施,逐步扭转,基本形成,普遍增加,基本建立,更加完备(完善),明显提高(好转),进一步形成,不断加强(增效,深化),大幅提高,显著改善(增强),日趋完善,比较充分。

3、常用动词:

推进,推动,健全,统领,协调,统筹,转变,提高,实现,适应,改革,创新,扩大,加强,促进,巩固,保障,方向,取决于,完善,加快,振兴,崛起,分工,扶持,改善,调整,优化,解决,宣传,教育,发挥,支持,带动,帮助,深化,规范,强化,统筹,指导,服务,健全,确保,维护,优先,贯彻,实施,深化,保证,鼓励,引导,坚持,深化,强化,监督,管理,开展,规划,整合,理顺,推行,纠正,严格,满足,推广,遏制,整治,保护,健全,丰富,夯实,树立,尊重,制约,适应,发扬,拓宽,拓展,规范,改进,形成,逐步,实现,规范,坚持,调节,取缔,调控,把握,弘扬,借鉴,倡导,培育,打牢,武装,凝聚,激发,说服,感召,尊重,包容,树立,培育,发扬,提倡,营造,促进,唱响,主张,弘扬,通达,引导,疏导,着眼,吸引,塑造,搞好,履行,倾斜,惠及,简化,衔接,调处,关切,汇集,分析,排查,协商,化解,动员,联动,激发,增进,汲取,检验,保护,鼓励,完善,宽容,增强,融洽,凝聚,汇集,筑牢,考验,进取,凝聚,设置,吸纳,造就

4、常用名词

关系,力度,速度,反映,诉求,形势,任务,本质属性,重要保证,总体布局,战略任务,内在要求,重要进展,决策部署,结合点,突出地位,最大限度,指导思想,科学性,协调性,体制机制,基本方略,理念意识,基本路线,基本纲领,秩序,基本经验,出发点,落脚点,要务,核心,主体,积极因素,水平,方针,结构,增量,比重,规模,标准,办法,主体,作用,特色,差距,渠道,方式,主导,纽带,主体,载体,制度,需求,能力,负担,体系,重点,资源,职能,倾向,秩序,途径,活力,项目,工程,政策,项目,竞争力,环境,素质,权利,利益,权威,氛围,职能,作用,事权,需要,能力,基础,比重,长效机制,举措,要素,精神,根本,地位,成果,核心,精神,力量,纽带,思想,理想,活力,信念,信心,风尚,意识,主旋律,正气,热点,情绪,内涵,管理,格局,准则,网络,稳定,安全,支撑,局面,环境,关键,保证,本领,突出,位置,敏锐性,针对性,有效性,覆盖面,特点,规律,阵地,政策,措施,制度保障,水平,紧迫,任务,合力。

5、其它:

以求真务实的态度,积极推进综合调研制度化。以为领导决策服务为目的,积极推进xx正常化。以体现水平为责任,积极推进xx工作程序化。以畅通安全为保障,积极推进xx工作智能化。以立此存照为借鉴,积极推进xx工作规范化。以解决问题为重点,积极推进xx工作有序化。以服务机关为宗旨,积极推进xx服务优质化

以统筹兼顾为重点,积极推进xx工作常态化。

以求真务实的态度,积极参与综合调研。以为领导决策服务为目的,把好信息督查关。以体现xx水平为责任,进一步规范工作。以畅通安全为保障,全力指导机要保密工作。以立此存照为借鉴,协调推进档案史志工作。以安全稳定为基础,积极稳妥做好信访工作。以服务机关为宗旨,全面保障后勤服务。以整体推进为出发点,协调做好xx工作。以周到服务为前提,xx工作迅速到位。以提高服务水平为目标,开始推行xx。

一.求真务实,积极推进xx工作制度化二.建立体系,积极推进xx工作正常化。三.规范办文,积极推进xx工作程序化。四.各司其职,积极推进xx工作有序化。五.注重质量,积极推进xx服务规范化。六.统筹兼顾,积极推进xx工作正常化。一是求真务实,抓好综合调研。二是提高质量,做好信息工作。三是紧跟进度,抓好督查工作。四是高效规范,抓好文秘工作。五是高度负责,做好保密工作。六是协调推进,做好档案工作。七是积极稳妥,做好信访工作。

八是严格要求,做好服务工作。

一、创思路,订制度,不断提高服务水平二、抓业务,重实效,开创工作新局面(一)着眼全局,充分发挥参谋助手作用(二)明确分工,充分搞好统筹协调工作三、重协调,强进度,信息化工作有新成果四、抓学习,重廉洁,自身素质取得新提高

一、注重学习,自身素质取得新提高二、围绕中心,不断开创工作新局面

1.着眼全局,做好辅政工作。2.高效规范,做好文秘工作。3.紧跟进度,做好督查工作。4.提高质量,做好信息工作。5.周密细致,做好协调工作。

6.协调推进,做好档案工作。

一是建章立制,积极推进xx管理制度化。二是规范办文,积极推进xx工作程序化。三是建立体系,积极推进xx督查正常化。四是注重质量,积极推进xx工作规范化。五是各司其职,积极推进xx工作有序化。

首先要树立正确的群众利益观,坚持把实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民群众的根本利益作为促进社会和谐的出发点,在全社会形成和谐社会人人共享的生动局面。

其次,是要树立正确的维护稳定观,坚持把确保稳定作为人民法院促进社会和谐的生命线。

第三,是要树立正确的纠纷解决观,坚持把调判结合作为有效化解不和谐因素、增加和谐因素的有效途径。

第四,是要树立正确的司法和谐观,最大限度地实现法律效果与社会效果的高度统一。

机关公文常用词汇集锦

动词一字部:

抓,搞,上,下,出,想,谋

动词二字部:

分析,研究,了解,掌握,发现,提出,推进,推动,制定,出台,完善,建立,健全,加强,强化,增强,促进,加深,深化,扩大,落实,细化,突出,建设,营造,开展,发挥,发扬,创新,转变,发展,统一,提高,提升,保持,优化,召开,举行,贯彻,执行,树立,引导,规范,整顿,服务,协调,沟通,配合,合作,支持,加大,开拓,拓展,巩固,保障,保证,形成,指导

名词:

体系,机制,体制,系统,规划,战略,方针,政策,措施,要点,重点,焦点,难点,热点,亮点,矛盾,问题,建设,思想,认识,作风,整治,环境,秩序,作用,地方,基层,传统,运行,监测,监控,调控,监督,工程,计划,行动,创新,增长,方式,模式,转变,质量,水平,效益,会议,文件,精神,意识,服务,协调,沟通,力度,领域,空间,成绩,成就,进展,实效,基础,前提,关键,保障,动力,条件,环节,方法,思路,设想,途径,道路,主意,办法,力气,功夫,台阶,形势,情况,意见,建议,网络,指导,指南,目录,方案

形容词一字部:

多,宽,高,大,好,快,省,新

形容词二字部:

持续,快速,协调,健康,公平,公正,公开,透明,富强,民主,文明,和谐,祥和,优良,良好,合理,稳定,平衡,均衡,稳健,平稳,统一,现代

副词一字部:

狠,早,细,实,好,很,较,再,更

副词二字部:

加快,尽快,抓紧,尽早,整体,充分,继续,深入,自觉,主动,自主,密切,大力,全力,尽力,务必,务求,有效

副词三字部:进一步

后缀:化,型,性

词组:

统一思想,提高认识,认清形势,明确任务,加强领导,完善机制,交流经验,研究问题,团结协作,密切配合,真抓实干,开拓进取,突出重点,落实责任,各司其职,各负其责,集中精力,聚精会神,一心一意,心无旁骛,兢兢业业,精益求精,一抓到底,爱岗敬业,求真务实,胸怀全局,拓宽视野。

来源:吴哲

|分享(19322)| 浏览(67860)