商务英语信函写作

范文1:商务英语信函写作习题

《商务英语信函写作》练习题 I. I.Choose the best answer:1.1.Please let us know _____the tendency of your market. a. for b. in c. of d. with 2. We _____ like to know more about the products you advertised in South Asian Trade. a. could b. would c. should d. had 3. We are now _____ your inquiry of October 12th. a. on receipt of b. upon receipt of c. in receipt of d. in reception of 4. We have received your enquiry of 15 July____you advise us of your interest in Cashmere. a. in which b. from which c. at which d. which 5. We have received your letter of September 12,_____ we are glad to know that you are interest in our electric heaters. a. which b. at which c. in which d. from which 6. We shall be pleased to send you the necessary information _____ our machine tools. a. on b. about c. of d. in 7. Our catalog ____ shows various types of bathroom fittings and their available sizes. a. enclosed b. that enclosed c. is enclosed d. which enclosed 8. I want to acquaint myself _____ the supply position of steel products. a. of b. with c. for d. about 9. We must insist _____ hearing from you within the next 10 days. a. in b. over c. on d. to 10. All prices must be quoted _____ US dollars. a. in b. on c. for d. as 11. As requested, we are _____ our quotation and shall appreciated your placing orders with us as early as possible. a. accepting b. taking c. submitting d. thinking 12. Your import manager wrote us last week that our price was _____ and asked us to secure supplies. a. acceptable b. managerial c. impossible d. unfortunate 13. Our quotation _____30,000 tons of corn is valid for 10 days. a. to b. after c. if d. for 14. Please _____ us for the supply of the items listed in the enclosed inquiry form. a. give b. offer c. quote d. send 15. Please keep us posted of the developments in your market _____ we can adjust our quotations to the extent you indicate. a. so that b. such that c. as long as d. so long as 16. Please let us have your lowest quotation on CIF Lagos basis _____500 pieces of 24” electric fans.

a. in b. at c. for d. on 17. Please reply _____ fax if you find our quotation acceptable. a. in b. with a c. by d. with 18. We agree to the amendments to the contract _____ requested in your letter of May 5. a. to be b. like c. when d. as 19. We can not make any offers as the goods are _____. a. without stock b. out of stock c. no stock d. not in stock 20. We _____ you for the special offer you send us.a. thank b. appreciate c. are grateful d. are indebted 21. We are offering you goods _____ the very high quality. a. of b. at c. for d. with 22. We are pleased to _____ your offer and place a trial order with you. a. make advantage of b. make use of c. take advantage of d. take use of 23. We would make you the following offer, subject to your reply __us not later than May 8. a. reach b. reaching c. reaches d. being reached 24. Please make us your best possible firm offer on CIF New York basis _____ terms of payment and the earliest date of shipment. a. which was stating b. stating c. states d. stated 25. A growing demand can _____ increased price. a. result b. result to c. result in d. result from 26. CIF is a price term, meaning the price includes the cost of goods, the insurance and _____ for carrying the goods up to the destination. a. payment b. freight c. premium d. forwarding 27. As you are our regular customer, we think we may concede _____ price provided you give us an order for a minimum of 100 units. a. with b. at c. in d. to 28. We need an agent in that country to help us to _____ our products. a. market b. display c. dispose d. buy 29. Because of the____nature of the agreement, I was reluctant to discuss with him in office. a. confidential b. reheated c. secret d.sophisticated 30. Our service representative will phone you to make an appointment __your convenience. a. in b. for c. at d. of

31. The bank will, as _____ by the national policies, give joint venture active support. a. called at b. called for c. called forth d. called off 32._____ we would like to co-operate with you, we do not think there is room for a reduction in our price. a. Even b. As c. Much d. Much as 33._____ you can make a reduction of 5% no business is possible. a. In case b. Provided c. If d. Unless 34_____ you can reduce your quotations, we shall have to buy elsewhere. a. Before b. After c. Seeing that d. Unless 35. The contents of the bidding documents mentioned above shall be _____. a. as following b. as followed c. as follow d. as follows 36. All their orders have been _____. a. done b. executed c. effected d. made 37. As you failed to make delivery in time, we have no choice _____ our order with you. a. but to cancel b. but cancel c. but canceling d. but cancelled 38. I have looked _____ your order, and I can assure you that everything is on schedule. a. at b. on c. within d. into 39. We confirm _____ from you the following commodities. a. to purchase b. purchase c. having purchased d. to have purchased40. On October 15, my company entered _____ an agreement with your firm to purchase a total of 18,000 gallons of house paint. a. to b. on c. into d. at 41. Please advise at what price your clients will place orders _____ us. a. of b. for c. by d. with 42. Please indicate on the enclosed your order form____you will place a cash order now. a. when b. whether c. until d. unless 42. But for their assistance our company would not have made such a great progress _____. a. soon than what had expect b. soon than what was expected c. sooner than what was d. sooner than what had been expected 43. We expect _____ a trial order with you in the near future. a. to have placed b. to place c. to placing d. placing 44. We look forward to _____ a trial order. a. receiving b. receive from you c. receipt d. receipt you 45. We trust that the high quality of our products will _____ you to place a repeat order. a. appeal b. induce c. attract d. seduce 46. As our factory is now fully occupied with orders, we regret having to _____yours. a. refuse b. decline c. reject d. return 47. Some customers requested us to _____ our price because they consider it too high. a. bring down b. get down c. put down d. take down 48. The car I bought last week _____ me $3,000.00. a. cost b. spend c. costed d. spent 49. The price of all laptop computers will _____ by 10 percent on May 1. a. depress b. descend c. decline d. devalue 50. We also wish to advise you that the price we quoted are our _____ prices. a. new b. cheap c. rock bottom d. easiest 51. We prefer your quotation _____ CIF San Francisco basis. a. for b. with c. on d. at 52. We are pleased to enclose a _____ quotation for bathroom showers. a. detail b. detailed c. detailing d. details 53. We find your quotation for _____ much too high. a. women blouses b. woman’s blouses c. women’s blouses d. blouses 54. We have been souring from local firms who _____ send us quotations regularly. a. are used to b. use to c. used to d. is used to 55. I am sure we can work out a _____ arrangement to handle the repairs. a. satisfied b. satisfactory c. satisfying d. satisfy 56. I would appreciate _____ me an up-to-date price list for your supplies. a. if you would send b. you send c. that you would send d. your sending 57. Could you allow me _____30 days to clear my account? a. another b. a further c. additional d. an extra 58. At this restaurant, you can pay _____ credit card. a. in b. with c. by d. from II. Put the following sentences into English:1.1.为使我们熟悉贵公司的产品,我们需要一些技术方面的细节。请寄有关产品的说明书,小册子或活页目录。

2.2.我们希望附寄的小册子对您有所帮助。

3.3.请寄我公司一份贵公司进口的清单。

4.4.感谢你方9月6日来函,现附上一册最新商品目录,从中你会对我们的新产品有更多的了解。

5.5.感谢你方5月18日询价,随函寄去我方最新价目单以供参考。

6.6.祝贺你们亚特兰大公司开张,我们希望它成为今后我们多年紧密合作的契机。7.7.在谈判过程中,我们相互增强了理解,这对我们今后的业务很有意义。8.8.如果我们采取措施在互利的基础上恢复业务关系,对我们都是有利的。

9.9.这笔交易的达成当然不是结束。它仅仅是个开端,一个我们之间长期友好业务关系的开端。

10.10.如你方以竞争性价格报盘,我们能保证在当地大量销售。11.11.考虑到我们的长期业务关系,我们接受你们的还盘。12.12.希望早日报给我们机床的实盘,我们将不胜感激。13.13.现在我们希望你们对我方报盘予以答复。

14.14.如果你们有意经营我公司其他产品,请告知你方要求。15.15.该报盘以你方本月底前到达我方为有效。

16.16.我们高兴地告知你们,我们可以为新订单提供特别的设计方案。17.17.除非你们降价5%,否则我们无法接受报盘。

18.18.现附上3本目录本,希望从中可找到你们的所好。

19.19.现随函附上我方销售合同HN768号一式两份,请查收。如审查无误,请会签后退回一份。

20.20.如果贵公司能供应所需型号和品质的货物,我们将定期开出大量的定期订单。

21.21.迟迟未回复您6月8日的信,请接受我们的道歉。我们利用一个月的时间搜集必需的资料来回复您的问题。

22.22.我无法把价格降低到你提出的限度,我建议我们是否各让一半呢?23.23.此价格比我们从其他供货商得到的出价要高。

24.24.按照你们的要求,我们报5000公吨大豆的实盘,以自本日起一周内你方复到为准。25.25.本报盘以收到你方订单时,货未售出为有效。

26.26.我方有一家客户对贵国海尔冰箱感兴趣,请发400台伦敦到岸价4月船期的报盘。27.27.我们正在仔细研究你方报盘,希望将此盘保留到月底有效。28.28.由于接单太多,他们目前无法承接任何新订单。

29.29.随函寄给你们形式发票一式三份,以便你们申请进口许可证用。30.30.由于订单源源而来,存货即将售完,订购请从速。

31.31.由于急需这批货物,我们有必要强调准时送货的重要性;如有任何装运方面的延误我们将撤销订货。

32.32.尽管你们商店规定这种商品不能退换,但因为买的东西不能适用,还是劳您替换。33.33.由于你方坚持不肯降价,我们只好从其他地方订货。

34.34.我们提出降价7%完全是合理的,否则,按合同规定,买方有权退货并提出索赔。35.35.假如你们的价格再打折3%,我们会进一步扩大市场份额。

III. III.Put the following sentences into Chinese:1.1.We highly appreciate your immediate reply to our Enquiry Note No.2436 regarding hard drives.2.2.Several of my customers have recently expressed interest in your waterproof garments and enquired about their quality. We should be glad if you could send us samples and quotations.3.3.The attached bulletin will give you complete information on vacuum cleaners.4.4.There is likely to be enquiry or order for men’s shirts, please send us quotations and samples in advance.5.5.This is a technical question, which I will have to refer to our technical department.6.6.We have received an enquiry for men’s shirts and request you to send your offer not later thanthe end of this month.7.7.We are grateful to you for having offered us the information about your local markets.8.8.We are happy to have concluded the business with you. Our work was not wasted. The time-taking negotiations were worth our while.9.9.Enclosed is our latest catalog in which Page 14 details the unique features of our laser printers.10.10.We will allow you 10% discount if you purchase 5,000 dozens or more.11.11.Thank you for your interest in our products. We are now sending you our latest catalog and price list by courier service.12.12.We are now interested in purchasing substantial quantity of polyester cotton blended fabrics of following specification. Please quote your rock bottom prices.13.13.We are now in need of the following specialties of your corporation:14.14.We will let you know which items we are interested in as soon as we receive the reference materials.15.15.One of our clients wishes to buy Chinese black tea. Please offer firm CIF EMP prices.16.16.Please note that the prices you quote should be on an FOB Hong Kong basis. Please send us additional detailed information and also a few pound of samples for our examination.17.17.Since the prices of the raw materials have been raised, I’m afraid that we have to adjust the prices of our products accordingly.18.18.To conclude this business, you need to lower your price at least by 3%.19.19.We find it difficult to fill your order at this prices indicated in your letter because of the high cost of raw materials.20.20.Your price is $500/mt, twice of the other countries.21.21.Your Order No.123 was confirmed by our fax of September 15, subject to arrival of credit within 15 days from the date. The 15-day period having expired on October 1st without our receipt of your L/C or hearing any further advice from you. Please let us know when the required L/C was opened.22.22.Business is impossible unless you reduce your price by 2%.23.23.We make you the following offer, subject to your reply reaching us not later than noon time, November 23.24.24.We offer firm for reply before 11 a.m. tomorrow.25.25.We would like to have your offer for 100 metric tons, quality the same as last consignment.26.26.You will see that our offer compares favorably with the quotations you can get elsewhere.27.27.I appreciate your counter-offer but find it too low.28.28.If you make us an offer at competitive prices we can sell a large quantity of chemical products in our district.29.29.It will be appreciated if you will immediately let us have your firm offer for machine tools.务英语信函写作》练习题参考答案

II. Put the following sentences into English:1. To familiarize ourselves with your products, we need some technical details. Please send us literatures, brochures, or leaflets dealing with your products.2. We hope the enclosed brochure will be helpful to you.

3.3.Will you please let us have a list of items that are imported by you?4.4.Many thanks for your letter dated September 6, we have enclosed the current brochure from which you may have a better understanding of our new products.5.5.Thanks for your enquiry dated September 6, we are now sending you our latest pricelist for your reference.

6.6.Congratulations on your newly-opened business in Atlanta. We hope it will mark the beginning of our close cooperation in the years to come.7.7.In the course of our negotiations we have come to a much better understanding of each other, which bears a lot for our future business.8.8.It will be advantageous if steps are taken to resume our business relationship on the basis of mutual benefit.9.9.The conclusion of the deal is certainly not the ending. It is only the beginning, and a good one, of the long and friendly business relations between us.10.10.If you make us an offer at competitive prices we can sell a large quantity in our district.11.11.It is in view of our long-standing business relationship that we accept your counter offer.12.12.It will be appreciated if you will immediately let us have your firm offer for machine tools.13.13.Now we look forward to your replying to our offer.14.14.If you are interested in dealing with us in other products, please inform us of your requirements.15.15.This offer is subject to your reply reaching here before the end of this month.16.16.We are pleased to advise you that we are able to offer a special designing plan for the modification of you new order.17.17.We can’t accept your offer unless the price is reduced by 5%.

18.18.Enclosed are three copies of our catalog, from which we hope you will find your preferences.19.19.Enclosed is our Sales Contract No.HN768 in duplicate. If you find everything in order, please sign and return one copy.20.20.If you can supply goods of the type and quality required, we may place regular orders for large quantities.21.21.Please accept our apology for the delay in replying to your letter of June8. It took us a month to collect the data necessary to answer your questions.22.22.I don’t think I can cut our price to that extent you required. Should I suggest that we meet each other half way?23.23.The price was higher than we can get from other suppliers.24.24.As requested, we are offering 5000 metric tons of soybean subject to your reply reaching here within one week starting from today.25.25.This offer is subject to prior sale.26.26. One of our customers is now interested in Haier refrigerator made in your country. Please offer CIF London for 400 sets to be delivered in April.27.27.We are studying your offer and hope that it will remain open till the end of the month.28.28.They can not accept any fresh orders because of heavy commitments.29.29.We are enclosing our proforma invoice in triplicate for your application for import license.30.30.Our stock is running low since orders keep rushing in. Please place your orders at once.31.31.As the goods are badly needed, we find it necessary to stress the importance of making punctual delivery; any delay in shipment would result in our withdrawal of this order.32.32.I would like to request you to replace the purchase which is found to be the improper one for my usage even though the no-return policy is applied to such an item in your store.33.33.If you insist on your price, we will have no way but turn to other sources for supply.34.34.Our proposal to cut down the price by 7% is reasonably, or else the buyer is entitled to return the goods and ask for compensation as stipulated in the contract.35.35.If you can reduce your price further by 3%, we are likely to increase the market share.

IV.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.19.20.21.

III.Put the following sentences into Chinese:1.非常感谢及时回复我方关于硬盘的第2436号询单。

2.我们有几个客户表示对你们的防水服装感兴趣并询问了质量情况。如能寄来样品和报价,将十分感激。3.附上的简报有关于真空吸尘器的详细信息。

4.很可能有男衬衫的询单甚至订单,所以请提前寄来报价和样品。5.这是一个技术性问题,我得找我们的技术部门。

6.我们收到的一个男衬衫的询盘,要求你们在本月底以前给我们报盘。7.感谢你们向我们提供当地的市场情况。

8.与你方达成了交易,很高兴。我们的工作没白做,这种费时的磋商还是值得的。9.随函附上最新的商品目录,其中详细地介绍了我们的激光打印机的特色。10.如果你方能订购5000打或5000打以上,我们将给予10%的折扣。

11.感谢你们对我方产品的兴趣,现以特快邮递寄去最新的商品目录和价目表。12.本公司有意大量购买以下规格的混纺人造纤维,请贵公司报出最低价格。13.我们现需要贵公司以下特色产品:

14.当我们收到参考资料,便即刻通知贵公司我们所感兴趣的货项。15.我们的一个客户想要购买中国红茶。请报欧洲主要港口到岸价实盘。

16.请注意,贵公司务必报香港离岸价。并请寄给我们详细的资料和几磅这两个品种的样品,供我们检测分析。17.由于原材料价格上涨,我们恐怕不得不对产品的价格作相应的调整。18.为达成这笔交易,你方应至少减价3%。

19.由于原材料成本高昂,我们难以按你方来信所示价格满足订货。20.你们的价格是每公吨500美元,为其他国家的两倍。21.你方第123号订单我们已经于9月15日传真确认,条件是你方信用证必须在15日内开到我方。15天的期限已经在10月1日到期,但仍然没有收到信用证,也没听到你们任何消息。请告知信用证是何时开出的。22.22.你方必须降价2%,否则没有成交的可能。

23.23.我们报盘如下,以你方答复在11月23日中午前到达我方为准。

24.25.26.27.28.29.24.我们报实盘,以明天上午11点前答复有效。25.希望您能报给我们100吨质量和上次相同的货。26.你会发现我们的报价比别处要便宜。27.谢谢您的还价,可我觉得太低了。

28.如你方以竞争性价格报盘,我们能在我地区大量销售化工产品。29.希望早日报给我们机床的实盘。(如能早日报给我们机床的实盘,我们将不胜感激。)

范文2:商务英语信函写作概要

商务英语信函写作概要

1.传统纸质信函

1、信头 The heading

信头就是指书信中发信人的地址和发信的日期等。

通常情况下,公司都会专门印制带有信头的信笺纸,包括发信人的姓名,地址,电话,传真等。当我们撰写传统信件时,直接使用这种信笺纸就可以。

2、编号(写信人的名字缩写)和日期 The sender name and the date 3、封内地址 The inside address

这里就是指收信人的姓名和地址,一般写在信笺的左上方。收信人名称地址的格式和信头的格式相同,但必须把收信人的姓名一并写出。另外,如果不是完全公事化的书信往来,或者已经从公事的关系渐渐发展成为带有私人性质的友好信件往来,由于称呼这一栏的内容已经说明了收信人的身份,所以可以不必填写封内地址。

4、事由 The subject heading

事由也就是我们通常说的主题,可以直接写明信件的重点,让人不必读完全信才了解到信的内容。所以事由要写得简明扼要。5、称呼 The salutation 指对收信人的一种称呼。

较常使用的有Dear Sirs, Dear Madam, Dear Mr. XX,。称呼后面的标点,一般使用逗号。称呼里的第一个字母要大写。6、开头语 The open sentences

开头语没有统一的格式,但习惯上先用客套的语句把收到对方来信的日期,主题及简单内容加以综合叙述,使对方一目了然这是答复哪一封去信的。如果是第一次通信,也可以利用开头语作必要的自我介绍,并表明目的要求。开头语一般与正文分开,自成一节,要求简单明了。7、正文 The body of the letter 信的主体。一封信件的优劣,完全要看正文写的好或坏。我们会在后面继续讨论写作商务信函的一些技巧、规则。8、结尾语 The complimentary close

结尾语一般用来总结文本所谈的事项,提示对收信人的要求,如“希望来信来函定货”,“答复询问”等,另外也附加一些略带客套的语气。正文结束后,另起一段写结尾语。

9、结束语 The complimentary close

结束语是结束信函时的一种客套,应该与前面的称呼相呼应。例如:“Sincerely,”“Best Regards,”or “Yours Truly,”.结束语写在结尾语下隔一行,只有第一个字母大写,后面加逗号。10、签名 The signature

写在结束语的下面,签上写信人的名字。如果是传统的信件,写信人最好亲笔签上您的名字,因为用印章的话,说明该信件并非本人亲自过目,只是通函而已,不为人重视。签名的下面,最好写上发信人的职位。11、附件 Enclosure

如果信中有附件,应在左下角注明Encl.或Enc.。例如:

Encls:2 Invoices Enc.:1 B/Lading

2.电子邮件

众所周知,电子邮件即E-mail是如今我们做电子商务使用最普遍的一种联系手段。电子邮件使用方便,信息传递迅速高效,且非常节省成本。但是E-mail的撰写也并不是一件很容易的事情。您知道,当一封E-mail发送出去后,只要收信人在线,他可以几分钟内就收到。所以,在您发送前,必须要检查一下您所写的内容是否正确合适,因为一旦您点击了发送键后,您就再也无法将其收回了。

通常我们理解E-mail的撰写风格可以比传统的信件,传真等稍加随便一点。但是我们在这里还是要建议大家,即便是写E-mail,由于是谈论公事,所以还是采用正式严肃的风格。尤其当您是第一次跟收信人联系的话,正式的商务信函能让您留给对方非常专业的印象。

1、收信人的邮箱2、发信人的邮箱3、写信日期

写日期时,请注意以下几点:

a.年份要写完整,不能用03代替2003。

b.月份要写英文名称,不能用数字来代替,如31/3/03不能在正式的信件中出现。但是可以用英文缩写,比如用Aug.代替August。4、时间5、主题6、称呼

7、正文8、结束语9、签名10、联系方法

这部分内容要完整,包括写信人姓名、职位、公司名称以及联系方法(地址、电话、传真、邮箱、网址)。写地址时请注意:一般来说,门牌号和街道名称之间不用逗号点开,但城市名称和国家名称之间一定要用逗号。您可以在自己的邮箱系统中事先做好一个模板。每次写信只要选择这个模板,信件会自动显示这些内容。

商务信函写作的要点

写作商务信函并不要求您使用华丽优美的词句。所有您需要做的就是,用简单朴实的语言,准确的表达自己的意思,让对方可以非常清楚的了解您想说什么。围绕这一点,我们总结了几方面的内容,希望对您写作商务信函有借鉴作用。1、口语化

每一封信函的往来,都是您跟收信人彼此之间的一次交流。人都是感性的,所以您需要在您的信函里体现感性的一面。然而很多人都有一种误解,以为写作商务信函就应该用一种特殊的“生意腔”,于是把一封本来应该是热情而友好的信函写得呆板而死气沉沉。他们宁愿写“Your letter has been received”,“Your complaint is being looked into”而不是“I have received your letter”或者“We are looking into your complaint”。其实我们简单的来理解一下,每次信函的往来不就是跟对方进行了一次交谈吗?只不过是把交谈的内容写到了纸上而已。多用一些简单明了的语句,用我/我们做主语,这样才能让我们的信函读起来热情,友好,就象两个朋友之间的谈话那样简单,自然,人性化。

想象一下,如果您由于无法准时交货而在电话上跟您的合作伙伴表示歉意时,您会怎么说?我想您会说“I am sorry we cannot deliver the goods today”。既然在电话中您会这样说,为什么在信件中要改成“It is regretted that goods cannot be delivered today”?放弃这种所谓的“生意腔”吧,让您的信也像谈话那样简单,自然,人性化。2、语气语调

由于您写的信函都是有其目的性的,所以您信函里所采用的语气语调也应该符合您的目的。在写之前先不妨仔细考虑一下,您写这封信函是想达到一个什么样的目的,您希望对收信人产生一种怎样的影响呢?是歉意的,劝说性的,还是坚决的,要求性的。这完全可以通过信函中的语气语调来表现。3、真诚

不管是生活中的交往还是生意上的合作,真诚是最重要也是最基础的,所以您的信函也必须能够充分体现您的真诚。不管说什么,都要带着您的诚意去说。把写好的信函拿起来读一遍,确保如果此时对方正在电话中与您通话,他一定能够感受到您的自然和真诚。4、直接

跟您一样,您的合作伙伴们每天都要阅读大量信函文件。所以,信函一定要写得简明扼要,短小精悍,切中要点。如果是不符合主题或者对信函的目的不能产生利益的内容,请毫不留情的舍弃它们。因为这些内容不仅不能使交流通畅,反而会混淆视听,非但不能让读者感兴趣,反而会让他们恼火,产生反感。5、礼貌

我们这里所说的礼貌,并不是简单用一些礼貌用语比如your kind inquiry, your esteemed order等就可以的。而是要体现一种为他人考虑,多体谅对方心情和处境的态度。如果本着这样的态度去跟别人交流,那么就算您这次拒绝了对方的要求,也不会因此失去这个朋友,不会影响今后合作的机会。

特别要注意,当双方观点不能统一时,我们首先要理解并尊重对方的观点。如果对方的建议不合理或者对您的指责不公平时,请表现一下您的高姿态,您可以据理力争,说明您的观点,但注意要讲究礼节礼貌,避免用冒犯性的语言。还要提醒一点,中国人有句话叫做“过犹不及”。任何事情,一旦过了头,效果反而不好。礼貌过了头,可能会变成阿谀奉承,真诚过了头,也会变成天真幼稚。所以最关键的还是要把握好“度”,才能达到预期的效果。6、简洁

就像前面提到的,要用简洁朴实的语言来写信函,让您的信函读起来简单,清楚,容易理解。用常见的单词,避免生僻或者拼写复杂的单词。一个单词可以表达,就不要用词组。多用短句,因为短句更容易理解。少用“and”,“but”,“however”,“consequently”这些让句子变得冗长的连词。在同一封信函里,不要使用多个相同含义的单词。比如,您前面写了“goods have been sent”,那后面再提到这件事时就不要再用其他单词如“forward”“dispatch”等。因为这样写会误导您的读者无谓地去考虑这些词之间是否另有含义。8、精确

当涉及到数据或者具体的信息时,比如时间,地点,价格,货号等等,尽可能做到精确。这样会使交流的内容更加清楚,更有助于加快事务的进程。9、针对性

请在邮件中写上对方公司的名称,或者在信头直接称呼收件人的名字。这样会让对方知道这封邮件是专门给他的,而不是那种群发的通函,从而表示对此的重视。当然,如果您无法确定收信人的名字,那就在称呼一栏里写“Dear Sirs” or “Dear Sir or Madam”。10、语言朴实

前面我们说过,商务信函不需要用华丽的词句。根据西方的语言习惯,他们更愿意使用简练而朴实的语言。所以当我们跟西方人进行商务沟通时,也要尽量避免华丽复杂的词句。比如“We look forward to a bright and glorious future of cooperation”,就不如直接写成“We hope to have the opportunity to work together with you in the future.”,这样才更加符合西方人的语言习惯。11、回复迅速及时

给买家的回复,千万要迅速及时。因为买家通常只看最先收到的几封回复,从中去选择合适的供应商。如果您的回复不够及时,就可能因为抢不到先机而失去商机。12、标题

这一点是特别针对写电子邮件的。也许很多人都没有意识到,事实上,E-mail的标题是很重要的一个部分,您的邮件给对方的第一个印象就是通过标题来完成的。如果标题没有内容,看起来象群发的垃圾邮件的话,很多买家就会直接删除。比如这样的标题“How are you?”,“Can we work together?”,建议您改成“Proposal: Bright Ideas Imports--Zhejiang Textile's PartnershipOpportunity”或者“Introduction: Our Product Offerings for Bright Ideas Imports.”这样您的邮件会显得更加专业。13、校对

写完之后,一定要检查。最基本是要确保拼写和语法正确,然后检查一下您所提供的事实,数据等是否有错。我们都会犯错,但即使在您的信函里有一个极小的失误,也可能会破坏您在沟通方面的可信度,并使人对您表达的其他信息投下怀疑的阴影。

最后,通篇读一下您的信函,对照前面提到的所有规则,您的信函都符合要求了吗?

很显然,这封邮件有很多缺点,首先语句呆板,严重的“生意腔”使邮件毫无生气。句子长而乱,含义模糊。没有提供足够的资料来支持自己的论点。更糟糕的是,措辞冒昧,极不礼貌。针对这些不足,我们再来看一下另一个版本。

现在您觉得好多了吧!我们说过,即使这次不能满足对方的需求,只要我们处理得当,还是可以保留住潜在合作的机会。有时候,信函的作用就是这么重要。

范文3:商务英语信函写作精华

商务英语信函写作精华

2006年07月23日星期日15:38 A.建立贸易关系

1.我们愿与贵公司建立商务关系。

1.We are willing to eatablish trade relations with your company.2.我们希望与您建立业务往来。

2.Please allow us to express our hope of opening an account with you.3.我们很高兴地附上询价单第××号,请贵方报离岸价格。3.We have pleasure in enclosing our file.4.我们确认向贵方购买……,随函附上订单确认书供参照。

4.We confirm having purchased from you …。A confirmation order is enclosed for your reference. G.请求做代理商

1.我们深盼与英国公司接洽,希望成为其销售代理商之一。

1.We are anxious to contact some British firms with a view to acting as their selling angents.2.如蒙考虑担任销售你们……代理商,我们将十分高兴。

2.We should be glad if you would consider our application to act as agents for the sale of your…。 H.请求报价

1.兹函请提供……的报价。

1.We are writing to invite quotations for the supply of…2.请将定期供应……之报价赐知。

2.Please let us have a quotation for the regular supply for…3.请将下列货品的最低价格赐知。

3.Kindly quote us your lowest prices for the goods listed below. I.询价

1.随函寄上询价单一份。

1.We are enclosing here with an inquiry sheet.2.如果贵方对……感兴趣,请告具体询价。

2.If you are interested in our…,please let us know with a specific inquiry.3.一收到贵方具体询价单,我方马上航空邮上样品册并报价。

3.Quotations and sample books will be airmailed to you upon receipt of your specific inquiry. J.价格

1.我们发现你方报价比我们从其他地方收到的略为偏高,请你方降价,以适应竞争。1.We find your quotation slightly higher than those we have received from other sources,and ask you to reduce your price to meet the competition.2.我们很抱歉地通知你方价格无竞争力,若贵方能降低价格,使我方可接受的话,我们仍对交易感兴趣。

2.We‘re sorry to inform you that your price has been found uncompetitive, but we’re still interested in doing business if you can bring down your price to a level acceptable. K.定货

1.我们非常感谢你方对……所作的报价。兹附上我们对下列货品的正式订单。1.We are obliged for our quotation of…and enclose our official order for the following items 2.请速告我方是否能按修改价订货。

2.Please inform us by return whether we may book your order at these revised price.3.假如贵方给百分之五的佣金,我们将向您们试订一批货。

3.We shall book a trial order with you,provided you will give us a 5% commission. L.发货

1.我们深信你方将会作出必要的安排,以便货物及时发运。

1.We trust that you will make all necessary arrangements to deliver the goods in time.2.货物按规定应在某月某日前装运,但贵方若能竭力安排早日发货,我们将十分感谢。2.Shipment is stipulated to be made befor…but we would appreciate your trying to arrange to ship the goods at an earlier date.3.因我方急需此货,请尽力将我匀所订货物于6月底前按期出运。

3.As we are in urgent need of the goods,would you please do your utmost to effect shipment of our ordered goods by the end of June as scheduled. M.缺货

1.很遗憾不得不告诉您,我们不能提供贵方在某月某日所定购的货物,因为……1.We are sorry to have to tell you that we cannot supply the goods you ordered on… bexause…

2.我方无法提供你方现在所需货物,甚歉。

2. We regret we are unable to supply what you require just now.3.我方会留心你方对……的要求,一旦有货,将立即同你方联系。

3. We wil keep in mind your requirement for…and shall contact you once it is N.责问

1.你方未能按规定时间发货,给我们带来了极大的不便。

1.Your failure in delivering the goods within the stipulated time has greatly inconvenienced us.2.非常遗憾不得不告诉你们,于某月某日运到的货物中有一箱已严重损坏。

2.We are sorry to report that one of the cases of your consignment was badly damaged when delivered on…

3.我们收到了好几位顾客对你们所提供的……提出的责问。

4. We have received a number of complaints from several of our customers conceming the…supplied by you. Q.索赔

1.你方为我方订单提供的货物质量与双方同意的规格不符。因此,我们应向你方提出索赔,金额为……

1.The quality of your shipment for our order is not in conformity with the agreed specifications.We must therefore lodge a claim against you for the amount of…2.你方提供的证明是不充分的,因此我方不能考虑你方的索赔要求。

2.The evidence you have provided is inadequate,therefore,we cannot consider your claim as requested.3.我方无法承认贵公司对于包装欠缺所作的损坏赔偿的索赔。

3.We cannot acknowledge your claim for damage due to defective packing. P.付款

1.兹上支票一张以付清第号发票上的金额。

1.We have the pleasure of enclosing our cheque in payment of your invoice No,…2.由于此订单的金额甚小,我们希望你方能同意在收到单据后邮汇支付。

2.As the value of this order is rather small,we hope you will agree to payment by mail transfer after receipt of the documents.3.使用支票付款,我公司将保留所有权直到该付之金额贷入我公司银行帐户为止;折扣已包括在价格内。

3.By check payment,we reserve right of ownership until the amount owed is creditedto our bank account;discounts are already included in the pric (一)回复来函

1.10月27日函悉,谢谢。我方愿与你方商讨扩大贸易的可能性。

1.We thank you for your letter of Oct.27 and should like to discuss the possibility of expanding trade with you.2.对你努力为我公司产品开拓市场,深表感谢。

2.We appreciate your efforts to explore the market for our products.3.欣悉贵公司新产品已推出上市。

3.It was a pleasure to hear from you that you have marketed the new product 4.很乐意寄上本公司新出品的……目录及价目表。

4.We have pleasure in sending our catalog and price list of newly developed…(一)回复来函

5.你方某月某日寄来的样品和价目表收悉,考虑到给贵方更佳的信息,我方未能早日答复,甚歉。现高兴地……

5. We received your samples and price lists on… and are sorry for not having replied arlier as we wished to wait for more favorable news to give you. We are now pleased to…

6.我们将乐于寄上你可能需要的进一步资料。

6.We shall be glad(happy,pleased)to send you any further informaiton you may need.7.接到你某月某日的来信,我们很乐意提议你担任我们的……产品的独家代理商。7. We have received your letter of … and shall be glad to offer you a sole agency for the sale of our products in…

8.我们相信你方对我方的报价会感到满意,期望收到贵方的订单。

8. We trust you will find our quotation satisfactory and look forward to receivingyour order.(一)回复来函

9.兹复贵公司5月10日之询价函,很高兴报价如下。

9. In reply to your inquiry of May10,we are pleased to quotes as follows.10.如果贵公司的价格较其他供应高为低廉,我们将向你们定货。

10. If your prices compare favorably with those of other suppliers we shall send you an order.11.我们高兴地通知你,你方……定货单中所包括的货物,已于今日……运出。11.We are pleased to inform you that the goods included in your order of…… have been sent to you today by…

12.很抱歉,你方所要求的产品现在无货,因此无法向你方提供……

12.We regret to say that the goods required by you are not available for the time being and for this reason we are unable to supply…

3.我公司经营电子产品的进出口业务,希望与贵方建立商务关系。

3.This corporation is specialized in handing the import and export business in electronic products and wishes to enter into business relations with you. B.自我推荐

1.请容我们自我介绍,我们是……首屈一指的贸易公司。

1.Let us introduce ourselves as a leading trading firm in…2.本公司经营这项业务已多年,并享有很高的国际信誉。

2.Our company has been in this line of business for many years and enjoys high international prestige.3.我们的产品质量一流,我们的客户一直把本公司视为最可信赖的公司。

3.Our products are of very good quality and our firm is always regarded by ourcustomers as the most reliable one. C.推销产品

1.我们从……获知贵公司的名称,不知贵公司对这一系列的产品是否有兴趣。

1.Your name has been given by…and we like to inquire whether you are interested in these lines.2.我们新研制的……已推出上市,特此奉告。

2.We are pleased to inform you that we have just marketed our newly-developed…。3.我们盼望能成为贵公司的……供应商。

3.We are pleased to get in touch with you for the supply of…。4.我们的新产品刚刚推出上市,相信您乐于知道。

4.You will be interested to hear that we have just marketed our new product.5.相认您对本公司新出品的……会感兴趣。

5.You will be interested in our new product……。 D.索取资料

1.我们对贵方的新产品……甚感兴趣,希望能寄来贵公司的产品目录及价目表。1.We are interested in your new product…and shall be pleased to have a catalog and price list.2.我们从纽约时报上看到贵公司的广告,但愿能收到产品的价目表及详细资料。2.We have seen your advertisement in The New York Times and should be glad to have your price lists and details of your terms.3.获知贵公司有……已上市,希望能赐寄完整的详细资料。

3.We hear that you have put…on the market and should be glad to have full details

4.如蒙赐寄贵公司新产品的详细资料,我们将深表感激。

4.We should appreciate full particulars of your newly developed product.5.如蒙赐寄有关……的样品和价目表,我们将甚为感激。

5.We should be obliged if you would send us patterns (or samples)and price lists of your… E.寄发资料

1.很高兴寄你一邮包,内装……

1.We are pleased to send you by parcel post a package containing…2.欣寄我方目录,提供我方各类产品的详细情况。

2.We have pleasures in sending you our catalogue,which gives full information about our varrous products.3.欣然奉上我方产品样品,在贵方展厅展出。

3.We should be pleased to let you have samples to give a demonstration at your premises 4.为使贵方对我方各种款式的手工艺品有一初步了解,今航邮奉上我方目录和一些样品资料,供您们参考。

4.In order to give you some idea of various qualities of handicrafts we carry,we have pleasure in forwarding you by airmail one catalogue and a few sample books for your perusal. F.附寄资料

1.随函附上本公司新出品的……样品,请查收。

1.You will find enclosed with this letter a sample of new…

2.随函附上购货合同第××号两份,希查收,谅无误。请会签并退我方一份备案。2.Enclosed please find two copies of Purchase Contract No.…,which we trust willbe found in order.Kindly sign and return one copy for our file.

范文4:商务英语信函的写作原则

商务英语信函的写作原则商务英语信函是一种常用的商务英语应用文,它是贸易双方相互了解、进行贸易往来的主要手段,在以书面形式沟通商务信息的同时,它也体现着一个公司或机构的商务形象。因此,商务英语信函的内容固然很重要,但表达方式也同样重要。商务英语信函的写作是有一定规范的,即应遵循一定的写作原则,从而使商务信函表意准确,语言流畅,更易于贸易双方的沟通与理解。

商务英语信函是商家开展对外业务活动的重要工具,其目的多是处理业务磋商的各种问题,或是与对方建立良好的关系。因此,在商务英语信函写作中,应遵循7 Cs原则,即礼貌(courtesy)、体谅(consideration)、完整(completeness)、清楚(clarity)、简洁(concise-ness)、具体(concreteness)和正确(correctness)。

1、礼貌原则。

礼貌是商务场上的重要法则,礼貌周到的信函可赢得对方好感。所以,在信函中宜多用“please”, “I twill be highly appreciated that …”, “I t is our pleasure to…”, “We feel dread fully sorry that …”, “We regret that …”等礼貌用语。

业务往来难免有争端、摩擦,此时也需要礼貌来作为润滑剂,化解双方对峙的僵局。信函中在索赔、抱怨、拒绝接受时,措词要力求客气、心平气和、语气委婉;在回复对方信函时,无论对方态度如何,在坚持自己立场的同时,都要有礼貌地作答。

首先,要善于使用被动语句,因为被动语态能使你的请求显得更加温和。如“You made a very careless mistake.”若改成“Avery careless mistake was made.”会更好。

其次,要善于使用疑问句。向对方提出要求时,陈述句、祈使句与疑问句相比,疑问句较其他两类句式更婉转、更礼貌。请看下面三句话:Make payment by con firmed irrevocable L/ C.We request you to make payment by con firmed irrevocable L/ C.Could you make payment by con firmed irrveocable L/ C?第一句是祈使句,口气太强硬;第二句太直接,有下命令之嫌;第三句既表达了自己的意图,又表示了对对方的尊重,避免了过于直率和盛气凌人。此外,还要善于使用条件句,以使建议听起来更具有试探性,语气更委婉。

2、体谅原则。

不少人写作时习惯于从自己的角度出发思考问题。与其他写作不同,商务英语信函写作强调的是信息沟通的效果,不仅要关心内容的正确与完整,还必须重视对方的反应,只有站在对方的立场上思考和处理问题,才能获得满意的沟通效果。

首先,应注意强调对方利益。在商务英语写作中,对方获取信息的最根本目的是要了解他们将获得什么利益以及这些利益是否能满足他们的需要。如:We allow you 2 precent discount for cash payment .You can enjoy 2 percent discount when you pay in cash.第二句让对方对自己所得的利益一目了然,优于第一句。

其次,应突出积极因素,用肯定句代替否定句。积极因素较消极因素更能激发对方兴趣,获得对方认同。如“We do not believe that you will have cause for dissatisfaction.”改写成“We feel surely that you will be entirely satisfied.”会更好。

3、完整性原则。

在信函写作中,信息完整很关键。一些在日常行文中常用的如“the above mentioned”,“the former”,“the latter”,“respectively”之类的表达方式要尽量少用,尽可能提供完整的信息,让对方一目了然。

4、清楚原则。

清楚是商务英语信函写作最重要的原则。一封含糊不清、辞不达意的书信会引起误会与歧义,甚至会造成贸易损失。清楚表达应注意选择准确、简炼的词以及正确的句子结构。

(1)尽量选择常用词。作为一种世界贸易语言,英语为一百多个非英语国家的商务人员在商务书信中使用,而这些商务人员并非个个精通英语。因此,在选词上应注意选择那些简单的、为人熟悉并且符合常规的表达方式,避免使用复杂、生僻和容易产生歧义的词。

(2)起修饰限定作用的词语应该紧跟被修饰的词,这样可以避免产生歧义。如“Those who work rapidly get ill in these conditions.”由于“rapidly”一词的位置使这句话可能产生两种不同的理解(可以指“work”,也可以指“conditions”) ,如将其改为“Those who work in these conditions get ill rapidly.”句子的意思就非常清楚了。

(3)在一句话中,要避免重复使用一个有两种不同含意的词。例如:“We shall take a firm line with thefirm.”此句中,第一个“firm”的意思是“strong”,第二个“firm”的意思是“corporatio n”.而如果将句子改为:“We shall take a strong line with the firm.”这样整个句子的意思就更清楚了。

5、简洁原则。

有力、生动的措词是增强国际商务信函有效性的一大法宝。在具体运用过程中,可适当选用那些为人熟知的外贸缩略语。但缩略语的运用切忌过杂过乱,要尽可能使用那些通用的或本专业常用的缩略语,例如:L/ C(letter of credit 信用证),B/ L (bill of lading提单),C I F(cost ,insurance and freight 成本加保险加运费价格),EAT(estimated arrival time 预计到达时间),A/ S(at sight 即期),FYI (for you information 供你方参考),S/ C ( sales contract 销售合同),D/ D ( demand draft 票汇),T/ T(telegraphic trans fer 电汇),M/ T(mail draft 信汇),D/ P(documents against payment 付款交单)等。

此外,句子结构也应简洁,尽量用单词替换词组和从句,在保证意思完整的情况下,使行文更加简洁。如“As what you have requested ,we are sending you our newest catalog.”其从句“What you have requsted”可以用一个词“requested”来代替,这句话改成“As requested ,we are sending you our newest catalog.”则更简洁。

需要指出的是,在保证礼貌的前提下,还要避免使用那些仅起填充作用、可有可无的词组和表达法。如:“Please be advised that we have received y our in2v oice.”若将该句中的“Please be advised”删除,不仅不会改变意思的完整性,反而使句子更简洁。

6、具体原则。

在商务信函中,要尽可能使所传递的信息具体、准确而形象。试比较:We have drawn on y ou as usual under y our L/ C.We have drawn on y ou our sight draft No.845 for theinv oice amount .US S |560100,under y our L/ C No.246 of the China Bank.很显然,第二句包括了更具体、详细的信息,使人对写作者所要传递的信息一目了然;而第一句过于笼统,读后还要再经过仔细揣摩,才能明白其所包含的意思。

7、正确性原则。

正确性不但指语法、句法、标点和拼写正确无误,还指使用标准语言和商务专业术语进行恰当的陈述。商务信函中如果存在拼写错误、人称不一致、时态误用、标点符号不当等问题,会使其沟通效果大打折扣。此外,还应注意使用正式、规范的语言,例如省略语“I’ ll”,“we’ re”等,显得太过口语化,欠正式,商务信函中应改写成“I shall”,“We are”; 还有像“Looking forward to y our early reply.”和“Nice to recevied our enquiry.”等,这样的句子在语法上也是不规范的,应该分别加上主语和谓语,以使句子结构完整。

商务英语中有一些特定的表达法,它们在普通英语中一般不出现或虽然也使用但含义不同。这也是商务英语的一个特征。比如短语“on the terms andconditions”中的“terms”和“conditions”都可以表示条件,在日常用法中,没有必要两词连用,但在商务信函中,为求精确、严谨,常成对使用。再如“advise sb.of sth.”(通知某人某事)中的“advise”,在日常用法中一般不作“通知”解,而表示“劝告”、“建议”等意思。这种作为商业术语与普通用语含义不同的词还有不少,如“offer”一般表示“提供”、“提议”等,在商务里可指“发盘”、“报盘”;同样在保险业务中,“policy”指“保险单”,而不是“政策”、“方针”,“average”指“海损”,而不是“平均的”、“一般的”;

“confirm”的基本含义是“确认”,用在信用证前面时,则表示“保兑”,如confirmed letter of credit (保兑的信用证)。

商务英语信函的写作技巧商务英语信函的写作中采用一些写作技巧,从而使商务信函表意准确,语言流畅,更易于贸易双方的沟通与理解。商务信函的写作比文学创作及其他类型的写作容易些,这是因为商务英语信函的写作有一定的框架规范,具体表现在内容结构与语言运用等方面。

1、要选用常用的四部式的正文结构。

通常,商务信函由四部分组成,即引言(introduction)、详情(details)、应答(response)和结束语(close)。

第一部分是引言。在此部分中,出于礼貌,常常通过告知事由或提及彼此以前的联系引出正文,而不是开门见山谈具体的事情,以免唐突与失礼。经常使用的开篇语有:We re fer to y our Order No.8 and regret to say that …Thank you for y our letter dated…Through the courtesy of our Commercial Counselor’ s Office in London ,we learned that you are interested in doing business with us.第二部分是详情。这部分具体说明事宜及具体要求。这部分是正文的核心。如涉及几件不同事项,应该按照主次顺序分几个段落进行说明,通常是一个段落说明一个事项;同时,在叙述同一事项时要注意条理与逻辑性。通常把涉及限制、付款、罚款、赔偿等不好的信息放在最后。

第三部分是应答。该部分是第二部分的延续,可以是要求对方确认、答复或寄来价目表,也可以告诉对方随函寄去的附件或表示欢迎对方询价或咨询。可根据具体情况来确定这一部分内容是否有存在的必要。

第四部分是结束语。通常是以一个相关的短句结束全文,是在完成以上三部分之后表示礼节性的一句客套语。需要注意的是,所有的结束语必须与正文的内容相吻合,否则就会显得牵强附会。如出口商给进口商的信中希望对方接受他们的报价,可以说:“Your favorable/ immediate reply will be highly appreciated.”商务信函中常用的结束语有:We await y our favorable reply with great interest .I f y ou need any further in formation ,please let us kn ow.As the market is of keen competition ,we recommend our immediate acceptance.

2、要善于使用商务信函中的习惯用法。

商务信函中的很多习惯用法,包括信函套语和不同于普通表达方法的表达法。商务信函长期以来形成了许多约定俗成的套语,如上面提到的用于信函开头部分和结束部分的常用套语。除此之外,还有很多,如报实盘的时候常这样表达:We offer you firm subject to y our reply by 5 p. m.our time ,Monday ,3rd.Oct .The offer is valid/ open until …The validity of the offer is from… to …当认为对方价格太高时通常的表达有:Y our price is found on the high side.Y our price is prohibitive.Y our price is excessive.即期信用证付款时可以这样表达:The terms of payment are by L/ C available by draft at sight .The terms of payment are L/ C payable against draftat sight . The terms of payment are by L/ C available by sight draft .类似习惯的表达方法还很多。在长期的国际商务交流中,形成了一系列言简意赅又很实用的固定句型和套语,这些已被商界广泛接受,我们只需平时多留意、多积累,就可以得心应手地撰写商务英语信函了。

范文5:浅议商务英语信函的写作

【摘要】面对客户,同事,上司,信函,报告,电子邮件很多初入公司的新手会讲英语,但是不知道如何写出简单、得体、有效沟通的商务文件。此篇文章主要论述了商务英语信函的写作技巧。写作需要不断革新,适应社会、科技以及商业的发展,从而清晰、准确的写符合时代要求的信函、备忘录、报告、传真以及电子邮件。这些技巧可以帮助我们增强个人的写作风格,避免写作障碍,消除过时的套话,运用强有力的沟通词语,创建高效的信函、备忘录、报告、传真等。【关键词】商务英语;电子邮件;写作技巧

商务信函写作能力直接影响到买家对公司的评估,给客户的每一份信函、邮件或者传真,都代表着公司的形象,显示公司的水平和实力。同时,也可以用这种方式来评估和了解买家。商务信函写作决定了是否以专业的方式跟买家进行有效的沟通,在业务往来中占据着举足轻重的地位。因此商务信函的写作技巧是国际商务人员必须掌握的一门重要功课。

尽管写作在今天已经被列为商业领域的关键技能之一,但在这一领域接收过全面训练的人还是少之又少的,人们要不就是在几乎无须动笔的课程上学有专攻,要么就是专攻学术写作之道,而学术写作与商务写作不是一回事。

学术写作与商务写作的不同,主要在于读者和写作目的不同。在学术写作中,写作者的目的是要让有限的读者信服自己在专业领域的博学。读者通常也是行业内的专家,他们阅读和评价论文是有报酬的。

而在商务英语写作领域,文章是写给那些可能并不了解写作题材的各行各业的读者看的。商务文章的写作,受到时间和金钱两方面的限制,另外,读者无须,也不想花时间来整理和阅读那些冗长而复杂的文章,因此,今天的商务沟通要求的是一种简洁明了易懂的文风。

因此要符合上述交流的要求,并且树立起专业,以顾客为本和思维清晰的形象,要注意的一些问题如下。一、读者

了解读者是成功的关键。无论任何交流(无论是文书的还是口头的交流)的首要原则即便是了解听众,一切都围绕着这一原则进行。二、遣词

简单的词效果是最好的。阅读理解研究的结果显示,如果文章的难度稍稍低于人们通常的理解水平,那他们理解起来就会更快。在生意场上的人,无论是老板还是打工族都没有时间为了看懂生词而去查字典。所以为了确保普通读者正确理解你的意思,尽量挑选短小精悍的简单词汇。这样也就减少了产生误解的可能。

行话仍有用武之地。行话是在特定的团体或行业内使用的专业语言。如果给这样的团体写信,行话就能比平常的语言更清晰更准确的解释某些概念,也有助于于技术人员读者建立起和谐友好的联系。三、造句

句首、句尾的内容应该得到突出。人们在看电视情景喜剧时也是这样一个情形,他们一打开电视,因为熟悉剧情的发展看到中间就会开溜去看其他频道,然后再回来看结尾。因此别把重要信息埋没在长句的中间位置,这样可能会被人忽略漏看。

商务应用文句子的平均长度为15到18个单词。这是使读者能够快速理解句意的最佳长度。如果超过18个单词,读者看到这种句子要么会跳过中间的细节,要么就会错误的理解句意,因此长度应切成两到三个短句为宜。

最佳的商务信函应该由长短不同地句子组成。太多长句会使人不知所措,太多短句则读起来像是/J,JL絮语,长短句交错的文章对读者最具吸引力。

标点超过四处的句子令人难以卒读。句子因为太复杂而需要那么多的标点的话,读者是很难读懂的。把这样的长句断成两句或更多的短句,这样有助于有逻辑地清楚明白地表达观点。表达三个乃至更多观点时使用列表是最好的办法,标题式的列表可以帮助读者迅速掌握要点,而且也留有空白的问隔。四、分段

信函、备忘录和报告的起始段落与结尾段落的长度不应超过三到四行。从心理学的角度上看,如果段落过长,就可能使读者不愿意花时间继续看下去。结尾段落也应该简短扼要,明白说明读者应该采取怎样的行动。意思表达的越清楚越准确,越有可能得到想要的效果,

位于信函、备忘录或报告肢体部分的段落绝不应该超过8行长。今天的读者已经不习惯长篇大论,他们会撇开中间的段落之看第一和最后一句。因此,为了保证读者不漏掉重要的信息,将段落长度控制在8行以内是最好的。

电子邮件中的起始和结尾应该只有2~3行长,主题部分段落长度不应该超过5行。凡事为读者着想起见,尽可能缩短段落。五、外观

外观是非常重要的。大多数人并不关心文档的外观。然而一封信函,电子邮件或报告的外观如何,在很大程度上决定了收件方是否愿意拆开阅读。如果其书写潦草难懂,那对方可能就会忽略其内容或推迟到以后再阅读。

选择合适的字体和字号。字体应以适宜阅读为标准。现在有了word软件,人们有机会使用多种大量不同的字体,但是如果同时使用多种字体,写出的东西就会获得“勒索信”一样的效果。字号要慎重的选择,太小太大都不利于读者的阅读。

绝不要整篇文档或电子邮件都用大写字母、粗体字或斜体字来写。有些人以为这样可以突出个人的风格或趣味,于是大部分甚至整篇文档都用大写字母、粗体字或斜体字来写。但是这些字体很难阅读,如果不加节制的滥用,反倒使它们丧失了正常的功用即对某些单词或习语起到强调作用。只在其强调作用时用大写字母、粗体字或斜体字。参考文献:

[1]侯晓莉.商务英语函电教学探讨[J].北方经贸,2004,(2).[2]熊伟.国际贸易实务英语[M].武汉:武汉大学出版社,2001.[3]谈芳,苏慧萍.外经贸英语函电[M].北京:学林出版社.2005.

范文6:商务英语信函写作的特点及技巧

摘要:商务英语信函是国际贸易的重要通讯手段。它具有其自身的独特的语言特点。本文论述了商务英语信函写作的特点和常用的写作技巧。关键词:商务英语信函写作;写作特点;写作技巧近年来,我国与世界各国的国际商务关系不断地发展深化,商务英语在跨国商务和国际经济活动中的作用也日益突出。在与外商的交往中,从建立业务关系,谈判到合同的履行都离不开商务英语信函。由于外贸交易的双方来自不同的国度,有着不同的文化和社会背景,而且为了各自的利益会据理力争。在这种情况下,如果能够礼貌、含蓄、得体的陈述自己的观点,或是提出请求和建议,就能更容易达到交易双方预期目的。因此,掌握商务英语信函行文的特点和写作技巧就显得非常重要了。一、商务信函概述

商务英语信函是进出口业务进展情况的专业性书面记录,是商务人员同世界各地开展进出口贸易时用来洽谈交易、联系业务的一种应用文件,从建立贸易关系到一项交易成功,这期间的大量书面磋商工作都是通过商务英语书信实现的,是对买卖双方权利、义务的规定和解决争端的法律依据。一封完整的英语商务信函包括:信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束语和签名六部分。信头的内容包括:发信公司的全称、地址、电话号码传真及E-mail地址。信内地址的内容包括收信人的姓名和地址,收信人姓名首字母要大写,地址顺序由小到大,即:门牌、街道乡镇、县市、国名,信内地址置于信头左下角,顶格书写,通常与时间相隔两行。称呼是信函中不可缺少的一部分,位置在信内地址下面隔一行,顶格书写。正文是信函的主体,是全文最重要的部分,商务英语信函注重开门见山、简明扼要,通常采用对方易于接受的表达方式,有时候为了明确要点,会在正文前中央加主题。结束语在正文结束之后空一行的位置书写,相当于汉语书信结尾时所用的“此致敬礼”之类的套话。签名在结束语之后,美式信函置于左下方,英式信函置于右下方,通常占3-4行,第一行是公司名称,第二行是书信执笔人签名,第三行是签名人的职务或所属部门,除签名外一般都是打印。商务信函主要分为四大类,即:信息类信件(包括询问信、通知信、报价信等),劝说性信件(包括推销信、求职信、推荐信等),解决问题类信件(包括索赔信、仲裁信、谢绝信等)以及表示友好意愿的信件(如祝贺信等)。二、商务英语信函的写作特点

(一)商务英语信函写作的格式特点:1、信函目的清晰明了。商务英语信函应在开始简明扼要地说明来意。一封使阅信者能够清楚了解写信者意图的商业信件才是真正的有效信件。有时也可在正文部分之前增加标题(Subject),信函的标题要概括出其主要内容,让人一看就知道信件内容。2、正文部分层次分明。正文部分是全文的核心。这部分内容、文字多,在行文时,必须紧扣中心,条理井然地展开论述,把事情的来龙去或有关事项阐述清楚,语言须有分寸、得体、明确,不可模棱两可。3、处理好开头和结尾。商务英语信函的开头和结尾虽也有所变化,但相对而言,较公式化,有许多习惯用语,内容也比较固定,这些也须一一辨认,把握。信函的开头为引据部分,一般总是简述去信的事由或转述对方来函要点,措辞用语简单得体。结尾部分十分简短,常用惯用性词语,有时可不另起段落。4、控制字数、句子和段落。一般来说,句子的平均长度应为10-20字,不能超过30个词。通常,一个段落不能超过10行,因为短小的段落更能激励对方读完全文。(二)商务英语信函写作的语言特点:商务英语信函属于应用文体,是一种公文性质的信函,其主要内容涉及公事,交流目的主要在于磋商公务。因此,每一封商务信函都很注重准确、规范、朴素的表达方式,而且具有突出的主体和明确的中心,其语言有着明显的特征。1、长话短说,避免罗嗦。商务信函的句子要简练,但求表达清楚明了,尽可能用单词和短语来表达意思,而不用长句或从句,如用some/many不用a number of,再如用gift本身就是免费的、馈赠的,用free gift就显得嗦了。2、用词准确严谨。商务信函的本质功能就是传递信息,而且传递的信息不仅关系到公司的业务发展、品牌形象、客户开发,甚至会影响到公司的国际声誉等,因此表达不能模棱两可,更不能出现错误。如要说“98美元”,一般信中只写“$98”,而在商务英语信函中要写成“$98.00”。再如介词短语by Mon-day和before Monday在商务英语信函中是要严格区分的,前者包括Monday,而后者则不包括Monday这一天,即截止日为Monday前的一天。3、句子简洁明了。商务活动的节奏快,效率高,传达信息要简明扼要,不能拖泥带水。除使用正式词汇的场合之外,此类信函很少使用各种修辞手法,文体风格较朴实平易。例如,受到汇款之后表示感谢,可以用这么一组句子:①We have received your remittance of January 30 in the amount of$300,and wish at this time to thank your for it.②Thank you for your remittance of January 30for$300.句①和句②表达的意思相同。但句②10个词就全面表达了句①23个词的含义,商务英语的简洁性可见一斑。三、商务英语信函写作技巧

商务信函以商品交易为目的、以交易磋商为内容、直接服务于交易的特点,商务英语信函宜采取简单的结构、简练正式的语言、客气委婉的语气来表达观点。下面介绍一下商务英语信函常用的写作技巧。(一)结构完整。一篇高质量的商务书信必须意义完整,结构严密,切忌丢三落四。一封完整的书信上述信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束语和签名六部分缺一不可。(二)观点鲜明。要使客户从商务书信中较容易地理解你所要表达的准确含义,就应该清楚地阐明文章的主要观点,每一个观点应分置于独立的自然段,将一项项事由交待清楚,这样便使得整篇书信形成一个有机的整体,脉络清晰,观点鲜明,使阅读者一目了然。(三)采用正确的语气。要达到信件的目的,使用恰当的语气极为重要,因为信件的语气直接决定你对读者的影响。这种影响在索赔信中尤为重要,因为作为受损方,写信人的火气一定不小。下面比较两个句子:①You should have studied UCP 500 Article 32 and should not reject our negotiation.②Please refer to UCP 500 Article 32 from which you may find it is incorrect for you to decline our negotiation.如果你是收信人,相信你对于第一种说法一定会恼火,第二种语气就委婉很多,问题也就容易解决了。(四)表达明确,直截了当。商务英语信函写作应尽量褒词句子简短明了,避免句式复杂和意思重复,以便于对方理解。例如,某封商务书信中有这样一句:I would like to draw your attention to fact that all our products are made from completed natural in-gradients and that we do not utilize any artificial additives.该句十分冗长,令人费解,如果将其改为意思相近的几个短句,如下:I am sure YOU will find plenty to interest you in it. You will notice that all our products are made from 100%natural ingredients. Without any artificial additives.我们就较容易理解它的意思。(五)回复迅速及时。给买家的回复,千万要迅速及时。一般情况下最好在收到信件的当天就回信,如果手头事情太多,或者意思难以答复,也应尽快考虑后给对方一个答复。切勿长期不回信,如果对方要求的事情目前无法办到,也应在信中说明,同时也可表示一有消息就会立即通知对方。结束语:商务英语信函作为商务信息的使者、买卖双方感情的纽带、良好合作关系的桥梁,具有较为明显的语言特点。只有充分了解商务英语信函写作的特点,并熟练掌握、灵活运用一些基本的写作技巧,才能写出优秀的商务英语信函。参考文献:

[1]王萍.英汉对照商务信函实例集成[M].山东科学技术出版社.2002[2]赵如松.涉外商务英语函件[M].立信会计出版社.1997

[3]蔡芳.浅谈商务英语信函写作[J].湖南冶金职业技术学院学报.2006.3[4]孙娜.如何写好商务英语信函[J].辽宁行政学院学报.2007.1

范文7:分析商务英语信函写作的格式特点

摘要:在商务英语信函写作中,首先要掌握的是写作格式。本文叙述了商务英语信函写作格式的构成及其格式特征,并指出在写作中应注意的格式特点及主要环节。关键词:商务英语信函写作格式随着经济的迅速发展,国际间的各种商务联系不断增多,作为联系的主要方式之一的商务英语信函的使用也日益频繁。有人认为,只要多读文学作品,有一定的文学写作基础,掌握一定的英语和信函知识,就能写好商务英语信函。其实不然,古人云:“学力既到,体制亦不可不知,如记、赞、铭、颂、序、跋,各有其体。”“文章以体制为先,精工次之。”这充分说明了辨认、掌握文体格式的重要性。商务信函大多约定俗成,形成了一定的惯用格式,内容构成要素、前后顺序、书写位置以及习惯用语等,都有一些规范的要求,已为社会公众所认可,我们须遵循其规范的格式写作,方能达到商务写作的目的。要写好商务英语信函,首先必须掌握其写作格式的特点,并注意在写作的过程中出现的问题。一、商务英语信函写作格式的构成

现代社会讲究速度和效率,对于处理日常业务的一般商务英语信函来说,其特点十分鲜明,即简短明了,形式固定。但也有的信函,它所处理的是较为特殊的或微妙的事情,写这类信函前就一定要深思熟虑。除了语言上礼貌得体,更需注意格式、语气、措词等方面的技巧。但无论怎样的商务信函,其基本框架应是一致的。它包括信函的开头、正文和结尾三大部分。也可以理解为商务英语信函的构成大体上可分为两个部分:必需部分和增加部分。必需部分指在一般情况下不可缺少的部分;增加部分指根据对象、内容的实际需要而增加的部分,这些部分可有可无,并不是绝对必要的部分。1、商务信函的开头部分

商务信函的开头部分包括以下四个方面:写信人的地址;日期;收信人地址;称呼。(1)写信人的地址

这部分也被称为信头,是信函的第一部分,也是十分重要的一部分。因为一打开信,首先映入收信人眼帘的就是这一部分。它应写在全信首页的开头,其位置大约在离纸顶端两厘米正中央处,有些信头处于中央稍右偏的位置。此部分包括公司名称、地址、电话和传真号码,有的信头中甚至还印有代表公司形象的符号标志、E-mail 号、网址和总裁的名字等。(2)日期

日期是信函中不可缺少的部分,注明日期便于对信件进行整理、存档。特别在合同双方就具体时间发生争议时,可查寻信件、确定日期,将之作为法律的依据。日期包括年、月、日的具体时间,如:2005年10月5日,可表示为:October 5,2005或者5 October,2005。(3)收信人地址

在写收信人地址时,应写出收信人姓名的全称、职务、公司的全称及所在地。例如:Mr. Richard Young姓名 Director头衔

Cress well Inc.公司名称

400 Fortune Street 街道号码及名称

Phoenix Arizona 82044城市名、州名、邮编 U.S.A 国家名(4)称呼

它是正文的开头。就像两个人见面说“Hello”,“称呼”这部分起着同样礼貌的问候作用。一般来讲,在称呼后用姓氏,如:Dear Mr. Richard,Dear Doctor Smith,Dear Professor Wang,etc.写信给姓名未知者称Dear Sir/Madam;或者Gentlemen/Ladies;写给公司办事员工用Dear Sirs。

2、商务信函的正文

这部分是信函中最重要的部分,它传递中心思想,表达发信人的意愿、建议和要求。书写正文时应使用完整的句子且层次分明。一封商业信函一般包括四个部分:开头;细节;对应;结尾。

(1)开头:写这封信的原因是对以前哪封信、合同或文件的应答。

(2)细节:提出问题和具体要求,询问情况或提供相关的细节;这部分可以分成段落,每段有一个主题。

(3)对应:期待对方做出的反应和行动或说明写信人将采取的行动。

(4)结尾:简短、礼貌地过渡到结束。一般来说,开头与结尾较短,中间最长。信件的主题思想就在中间段落,所以,它是正文的中心,是核心部分。“文如其人”,如果商务英语信函的正文组织不当,逻辑混乱,措词欠妥,语法有误,这封信就会让商务交往大打折扣,送出此信的商业机构的形象也会大大受损。因此正文部分是最重要的部分。3、商务信函的结尾部分

信尾也属于信函的一部分,它传递许多有用的信息,因此这部分是不能被忽视的。信尾通常包括两个内容:结束敬语和签名。

(1)结束敬语:结束敬语分三类情况。第一类是最正式信函,第二类为较正式信函,第三类为非正式信函,不同类型信函的开头和结尾都要遥相呼应,也就是说,如果开头语是正式语,结尾语也是正式语,反之亦然。总之,信函的风格要首尾一致。例如:开头结尾正式:

Dear Sirs Yours faithfully Gentlemen Respectfully yours 比较正式:

Dear Mr. Smith Sincerely yours Dear Ms. Martin Sincerely 非正式:

Dear Tom Best regards Dear Mary Best wishes (2)签名:每封商业信函都必须签名。签名意味着对这封信的内容同意并负有责任。这部分一般位于结尾敬语处下三到四行,包括亲笔签名,打字签名。如果写信人有头衔,打字签名下还要加上头衔或职位称呼。

二、商务英语信函写作格式的主要特点

1、拟妥标题或简洁明了地说明目的。对标题的拟写有具体的要求,必须处理好。信函的标题要概括出其主要内容,让人一看就知道信件内容。如果没有事由标题,大多商务英语信函应在信的开始简明扼要地说明来意。一封使阅信者能够清楚了解写信者意图的商业信件才是真正的有效信件。这个标准虽然简单,但在实际中常被忽视。请看以下两封样文:(1)

Dear Mrs. Rutt, Mr. Liver yesterday called our agent David saying that the mistake was his. As a result, his insurance has been acquiesced. Therefore, we shall be repaid the full amount of our subrogation interest in this matter. If this is sat is factory to you, please sign the attached release and forward it along with the copy of our accident report. Yours faithfully,(2)

Dear Mrs. Rutt, Mr. Liver yesterday admitted his blame for your accident on January 12.As a result, his insurance company had agree to repay us the full amount ($2,000) for your collision damage. We are quitepleased at their willingness to settle out of court. If their offer sounds acceptable to you, please sign the enclosedreleaseandreturnittous, alongwiththecopyofouraccidentreport.Yoursfaithfully,读完样文(1)后,让人很难说出这封信到底讲了什么。换句话说,这封信就没有简洁明了地说明来意,表达罗嗦、含糊。而样文(2)就能清晰地说明来意。

2、安排好主体部分的层次。正文主体部分是全文的核心部分,以表现观点的依据和表达基本内容的部分。这部分内容、文字多,在行文时,必须紧扣中心,条理井然地展开论述,把事情的来龙去或有关事项阐述清楚,语言须有分寸、得体、明确,不可模棱两可,在商务英语信函中,主体部分的层次安排一般采用纵贯式和并列式两种方式。纵贯式以时间先后为顺序来行文,以利于讲述清楚事件的来龙去脉或发展过程,从而阐明观点,如样文(2)属于纵贯式英语信函。并列式是根据内容的特点和事物的不同性质,也就是按照事物的逻辑关系进行分类归纳,它们互不重复、混淆、冲突,分别阐述几个问题,但又紧紧围绕一个中心。主体部分条理井然、中心突出。

3、处理好开头和结尾。商务英语信函的开头和结尾虽也有所变化,但相对而言,较公式化,有许多习惯用语,内容也比较固定,这些也须一一辨认,把握。信函的开头为引据部分,一般总是简述去信的事由或转述对方来函要点,措辞用语简单得体。结尾部分十分简短,常用惯用性词语,有的不另起段落。如开头常有以下句型:建立关系:We are willing to establish trade relations with your company.自我推荐:Let us introduce ourselves as a leading trading firm in...索取资料:We are interested in your new product ... and shall be pleased to have a catalog and pricelist.回复来函:We thank you for your letter of 18th March and are pleased to learn that you like our products.等等。

结尾常用的句型有: As the matter is urgent we should appreciate an early reply. Your prompt reply is eagerly awaited. An early reply would help us to help you. Please be good enough to send us the amount due within the next few days.等等。三、结语

商务英语信函广泛使用于我国与英语国家,如英国、美国的外贸业务往来,也可用于非英语国家之间的往来,在具体业务中,有着联系、约束、凭证的作用。国际贸易交易环节复杂,贸易上又存在着不同的做法、惯例和法律规定,双方在交易过程中,主要通过商务英语信函来沟通情况、传递信息、交换意见和解决问题。商务信函有其严格的业务要求,一经发出,对方表示接受后即不允许作任何更改,具有法律的约束力。在交易洽谈中商务信函是最终签定合同的依据。总之,随着经济的繁荣,国际商务事业的发展,商务英语信函越来越频繁,这就要求从事商务工作的人员具备书写规范的商务英语信函的能力。参考文献:[1]方有恒:《商贸英文信写作手册》[M].杭州:浙江大学出版社,2001。[2]许小平:《国际商务英语写作》[M].武汉:华中理工大学出版社,2000。[3]范红,王朝晖,廖国强:《英文商务写作教程》[M].北京:清华大学出版社,2000。[4]陆墨珠:《国际商务函电》[M].北京:对外经济贸易大学出版社,1994。

范文8:经典:商务英语10种抱怨信函写作篇

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经典:商务英语10种抱怨信函写作篇

Complaints & Claims (抱怨和索赔信函)抱怨、索赔信函的目的是为了获取更好的服务,对已出现的问题求得尽快的、妥善的解决。它通常是买方由于对收到的货物不满而书写,如:货物未按时到达;货物虽抵达,但与订单所载不同;货物有损毁现象;货物数量短缺或多余;货物质量与样品不符;服务不合理以及收费过高等,这些均是抱怨、索赔的正当理由。书写抱怨、索赔信函时,不妨开门见山出原先双方同意的条件,然后列举事实以表示有何不满,以及为什么不满,最后提出解决的方法。内容应明确、清楚、有理,语气要简洁、坚决。避免使用愤怒和使对方过于难堪的措辞(除非你所抱怨的问题反复发生,且多次投诉而毫无结果)。

1) For Delay in Shipment (由于发货延迟而抱怨) Dear Sirs , The furniture we ordered from you should have reached us a week ago .Needless to say , the delay in delivery has put us to great inconvenience .It is therefore imperative that you dispatch them immediately .Otherwise we shall be obliged to cancel the order and obtain the goods elsewhere. Please look into the matter as one of urgency and let us have your reply as early as possible . Yours faithfully,亲爱的先生们:我方从贵方订购的家具应于一星期前收到。不用说,发货的延迟给我方带来了很大的不便。因此,贵方必须立即发货,否则我们将被迫取消订单,到另处订货。请紧急处理此事,并尽快告知结果。

2) For Poor-Packing (由于包装不妥提出索赔) Dear Sirs , We are writing to inform you that the toys covered by our order No.519arrived in such an unsatisfactory condition that we have to lodge a claim against you .It was found upon examination that 10%of them are broken and some are badly scratched , obviously due to the improper packing . Therefore, we cannot offer it for sale at the normal price and suggest that you make us an allowance of 20% on the invoiced cost .This is the amount by which we propose to reduce our selling price .If you cannot accept , Im afraid we shall have to return them for replacement . Sincerely yours ,亲爱的先生们:我们写信通知贵方,519号订单玩具已收到,但货物状况很不令人满意,故我们不得不提出索赔。经检查,我们发现有10%的货物破损,而且一些也有严重磨损现象。很明显,这是由于包装不妥造成的。因此,我们无法以原价售出货物。建议贵方依照发票金额给予20%的折扣,这是我们所建议降低的售价额度。如果贵方无法接受,我们将不得不退货,要求替换。

3) For Damage of Goods (由于货物损坏而抱怨) Dear Sirs, Our order No.JT-8 The glassware you supplied to our order of 3rd July was delivered by the shipping company this morning .The 160 cartons containing the goods appeared to be in perfect 洛基国际英语竭诚为您服务

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condition .But when I unpacked them with great care , I regret to report that 10 cartons of glassware badly cracked . We trust you can understand that we expect the compensation for our dam aged goods . Yours faithfully,亲爱的先生们:订单JT-8号我方于7月3日从贵处订购的玻璃器皿已于今早货运公司送到。装有货物的160个纸箱完好无损。但当我们小心打开检查时,发现有10箱玻璃器皿严重破损。相信贵处能理解我方要求对损坏货物进行赔偿。4) For Incomformity(由于货物不符而抱怨) Dear Sirs , On March 12, we ordered 1,200 shirts size 42. But unfortunately ,we received completely different articles-children clothes today .We can only presume that a mistake was made and the children clothes were for another order . As I have several customers waiting , please arrange for the replacements at once. Faithfully yours,亲爱的先生们:三月十二日我订购了一千二百件四十二号男式衬衣。但不幸的是,今天我们收到了完全不同的货物——儿童服装。我们想贵方一定搞错了,儿童服装是另一份订单。由于有几位客户在等货,故请贵方立即安排更换货物。

5) For Unacceptable Substitute (由于无法接受替代物而抱怨) Dear Mr .Cliff, During the past three months I have placed two sizable orders for The Handy Desk Companion by Roy .specifying the hard back binding .But both time you sent me paper-back binding because you were out of stock on the hard-back . Fortunately ,I am still selling a few of the paper backs ,but more and more customers ask for the hard-back ones .(At least two of our competitors have this reference book in hard-back in our cities).

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