英汉农机常用词汇

范文1:机械常用英语词汇

材料

aluminum 铝 austenitic stainless steel 奥氏体不锈钢

babbit 巴氏合金 borazon(=boron nitride)氮化硼 brass 黄铜 bronze 青铜

carbide 硬质合金 carburizing steel 渗碳钢

CBN(cubic boron nitride)立方氮化硼 ceramic 陶瓷的 chrome molybdenum steel 铬钼钢 composite material 复合材料 ferritic stainless steel 铁素体不锈钢 ferrous material 黑色金属 hard alloy 硬质合金 high carbon steel 高碳钢 high speed steel 高速钢 malleable cast iron 可锻铸铁 manganese steel 锰钢

nitriding steel(=nitrided 氮化钢(渗碳钢) steel) non-ferrous material 有色金属 organic material 有机化合物 sintered alloy 金属陶瓷合金 stainless chromium steel 不锈铬钢 stainless steel 不锈钢 tungalloy 钨合金 tungsten 钨

white cast iron 白口铸铁

工具Adjustable (monkey wrench)活动扳手

allen key 内六角扳手 allen wrench 内六角扳手 box spanner(wrench)梅花扳手

die handle(wrench)丝攻扳手 diestock 扳牙扳手 double-head box-wrench 双头梅花扳手 double-head wrench 双头开口扳手 hex wrench 六角扳手 hook spanner 钩头扳手 open end wrench 开口扳手 socket wrench 套筒扳手 spanner(wrench)活动扳手 tap wrench 丝锥扳手

torque indicating 扭力显示扳手 wrench opening 扳手口 cross-bladed screwdriver 十字起子 flat-bladed screwdriver 一字起子 flat screw 平头改锥螺丝刀 phillips screw 十字螺丝刀 turn screw 螺丝起子 benchwork 钳工 cutting pliers (nippers)克丝钳

long-noes pliers 尖嘴钳 hand vice 手虎钳

parallel-jaw vice 平口虎(台)钳 vice bench 钳工台、虎钳台 vice/vise 虎钳 dead-smooth file 油光锉 round file 圆锉 smooth file 细锉 square file 方锉 flat file 扁锉 half-round file 半圆锉 three-square file/triangular file 三角锉 dividing head 分度头 honing stone 油石 drill chuck 钻夹头 drill jig/jig bush(ing)钻套 emery paper 砂纸 hammer 榔头 hand hammer 手锤 hand saw 手锯

chisel 凿子 copper hammer 铜锤

Morse taper shank 莫氏锥柄 puller 拔出器 bearing extractor/puller 轴承拔出器 punch 洋冲 quill 顶尖套 rotating center/live center 活顶尖 steel tape 钢卷尺 index change gears 分度挂轮 index plate 分度盘 lathe center 顶尖 threading die 扳牙

three jaw chuck 三爪卡盘 chuck 卡盘 clearance gauge(=gage)/feeler 塞规 gauge depth gauge 深度尺 dial indicator(gauge)千分表 feeler gauge 塞尺 profile gauge /template 样板 flat plate/plate 平板 gauge block 块规 micrometer 千分尺 micrometer caliper 千分尺 slide gauge/vernier caliper 游标卡尺 datum surface 基准平板 locating pin/dowel pin /alignment 定位销 mandrel/arbor 芯轴 ammeter 安培表 multimeter 万用表 ohmmeter 欧姆表 voltmeter 伏特表 round shank straight shank

cylindric(al) shank 圆柱柄

标准件

angular ball bearing 向心球轴承 angular-contact ball bearing 向心推力球轴承 ball bearing 滚珠轴承 ball thrust bearing 推力球轴承 combined thrust and radial bearing 径向推力轴承 needle bearing 滚针轴承

plain roller bearing 圆柱滚子轴承 radial and thrust bearing 向心推力轴承 radial bearing 向心轴承

self-aligning bearing 自动调心轴承 tapered roller bearing 圆锥滚子轴承 thrust bearings 止推轴承 bolt 螺栓 CSK. Screw = countersink screw 沉头螺栓 hex bolt 六角螺栓 lifting bolt 吊环螺栓 SOC. Head cap SCR.= socket head cap screw 内六角螺栓 socket bolt 内六角螺栓 stud foundation bolt 地脚螺栓 cheese-head screw /cap screw 圆头螺钉 countersink screw 埋头螺钉 countersunkhead screw 沉头螺钉 eyebolt 吊环螺钉 hex head screw 六角螺钉 hexagon screw 六角螺钉 hexagon-socket head screw 内六角头螺钉 hex-socket head screw 内六角螺钉 lock screw 锁紧螺钉 roundhead screw 半圆头螺钉 screw 螺

circular nut 圆螺母/并帽 HEX. Nut = hexagon nut 六角螺母 hold nut 固定螺帽 lock nut 锁紧螺母 spacer 垫片 Washer (spring ~)垫圈 cotter pin 开口销

crankpin 曲柄销 dimand loc. pin 菱形销 dowel pin 圆柱销 dowels 定位销 flush pin 埋头销 loc.定位销 pin 销

split pin 开口销 taper pin 圆锥销 tangential key 切向键 woodruff key 半圆键 hex 六角 lifting ring 吊环 retaining ring 挡圈

screw locking element 锁紧垫圈

机械加工

bent tool 弯头车刀 form tool 成形车刀 offset tool 偏头车刀 recessing tool 切槽车刀 single-point threading tool 螺纹车刀

turning tool 外圆车刀 core drill 扩孔钻

counterbore 沉孔锪孔钻 countersink drill 埋头钻 flat drill 扁钻 fluted twist drill 麻花钻 twist drill 麻花钻

shanktype core drill 带柄扩孔钻 solid drill 整体钻 spade drill 扁平钻 spotting drill 中心钻 dovetail cutter 燕尾铣刀 endmill 立铣刀 inserted-blade milling cutter 镶片铣刀 key-seat milling cutter 键槽铣刀 side milling cutter 三面刃圆铣刀 t-slot milling cutter T型铣刀

expansion hand reamer 可调式手铰刀 hand reamer 手铰刀

reamer 铰刀 knurl 滚花 knurling tool 滚花刀 lapping 研磨 scraper 刮刀

three square scraper 三角刮刀 tap & die 丝攻

hard carbide tool 硬质合金刀具 Allowance for machining 加工余量 blind hole 盲孔 brittleness 易碎 chamfer/fillet 倒角 counterbore c/bore 沉孔 counterbored hole 沉孔

counterboring 沉孔锪孔 cutting force 切削力 depth of cut 切削深度 drilling 钻 ream 铰

lapping compound 研磨剂

major flank 主后(刀)面 minor flank 副后(刀)面 negative rake 负前角 chisel edge 横刃 non-corrosive 耐腐蚀 eccentric 偏心

chip room(space)(刀具的)排屑槽 excellent wear resistance fragibility fragileness high metal-removal rates regrindable resharpenable

机械传动

boring 镗床 broaching 拉床

centreless grinding 无心磨床 chucker 六角车床 drilling 钻床 grinding 磨床

lathe 车床 milling 铣床 puncher 冲床 BSP 管螺纹 double-start thread 双头螺纹 fine(pitch) thread 细牙螺纹 inch-system thread 英制螺纹 inside diameter 内径 internal thread 内螺纹 lead of thread 导程 lead screw/ball screw 丝杆

Leveling screw 校平螺旋 major diameter of thread 螺纹大径 pitch diameter of thread 螺纹中径 minor diameter of thread 螺纹小径 metrie thread 公制螺纹 pipe thread 管螺纹 tapered screw thread 锥螺纹 thread profile 牙形 threads 螺纹

arbor (主、心、柄)轴 axis 轴线 base plate 底座 belt pulley 皮带轮 bevel gear 锥齿轮 blank 毛坯 bore 孔 bracket 托架 burr 毛刺 bushing plate 钻模板 c/sk 锥孔 CCW = counter clock wise(anticlockwise)逆时针 center-to-center spacing 中心距 change speed 变速 chip chute 铁屑槽 CM=corrective maintance 设备保养 cone drive 锥轮

console 控制台、操作台 cooperation part 外协件

core shift 偏心 coupling 联轴器 CW(clockwise)顺时针 derusting 除锈 det.= detail 零件 deviation from centre 偏心距 dim=dimension 尺寸 dimple 凹坑 distributor 分配器 drive 主动 driven 从动

eccentric clamp 偏心夹紧机构 element 部件、构件 end 轴向,端 finish 精加工 flange 法兰 friction 摩擦 gear train 齿轮系 general overhavl 大修

gib 镶条、塞铁 grease 润滑脂 headstock 床头箱 hole spacing 孔距 honing 珩磨 horizontal 卧式 impact 冲击 joint face 结合面 keyway 键槽 knob 旋钮

laterally 横向、从侧面 lever 杠杆

lithium-based grease 锂基润滑脂 longitudinal 轴向的

master 主(总)控制 mating 联接的、配合的 micron 微米 mount 安装

mounting 安装、装配 mounting flange 安装法兰 muffler 消音器 multi-tool 多刀 multi-wheel 多砂轮 nipple 螺纹接头 nominal size 标称尺寸 notches 槽

nut 拧 O.L.= overall length 总长 orifice 小孔

overall dimension 外形尺寸 overtravel 超(越)程 P/F = power/free

pad 垫片

part-section drawing 局部剖视图 pinion 小齿轮 pitch 间距 planer switch

planetary gears mech 行星齿轮啮合 pulley 皮带轮 rack 齿条 reject rate 废品率 retainer 保持架 rib 加强筋 riffling 链条 rivet 铆接 rocker 摇臂 runner 螺帽 runt 跳动 schematically 示意图 score 划痕 scrap / waste 报废 scrap view 局部视图 self-centering

semi-finish 半精加工 shiny 磨损 silencer 消音器 spindle 主轴

spline 有花键的 sprockets 正时皮带轮 stock 备料、毛坯 stop 挡块 subplate 底板 support plunger 支撑柱 taper 锥形 tappet 挺杆 tilt 翻转

transfer 组合、自动线 transmission box 变速箱 trench 沟槽

unit 单元、装置、机构 upset metal/fin 飞边

waste product/reject/waste废品 r wear adjustment 微调 wear out / wear 磨损 wearability 耐磨性 wearresistant 耐磨的 wedge 斜铁,楔块 wiper 刮屑板 work stop/stopper 工作挡块 workpiece 工件 precision 精度

公差与配合

accuracy of form 形状精度 accuracy of surface position 位置精度 form deviation 形状误差 form tolerance 形状公差 allowable variation 允差

composite error 综合误差 cumulative error 积累误差 measurement accuracy 测量精度 measuring basis 测量基准 measuring error 测量误差 interchangeability 互换性 match /fit 配合

clearance fit 间隙配合 transition fit 过渡配合 interference fit/tight fit 过盈配合 camming action 端跳 radial runout 径跳 total runout 全跳动 surface plate 基准平面 tolerance range 公差范围 tolerance zone 公差带 coaxiality 同轴度 coaxiality concentricity 同轴度

coaxiality tolerance 同轴度公差 cylindricity 圆柱度 cylindricity tolerance 圆柱度公差 noncylindricity 圆柱度误差

flatness 平面度

flatness tolerance 平面度公差 nonflatness 平面度误差 inclination 倾斜度

inclination deviation 倾斜度误差 inclination tolerance 倾斜度公差 out-of-roundness 圆度误差 parallelism tolerance 平行度公差 nonparallelism 平形度误差 perpendicularity/squareness 垂直度 roundness 圆度 roundness/circularity 圆度 straightness 直线度 straightness tolerance 直线度公差 nonstraightness 直线度误差 symmetry 对称度

symmetry tolerance 对称度公差 nonsymmetry 对称度误差

eccentricity n.偏心,古怪,[数]离心率

热处理

Brinell hardness 布氏硬度 Rockwell hardness 洛氏硬度 Vickers hardness 维氏硬度 anneal 退火 annealing 退火

artificial aging 人工时效 carburization cementation 渗碳 constant temperature 恒温 cyanide 氰化 high red-hardness 红硬性 induction hardening 高频淬火 natural aging 自然时效 nitrid hardening 氮化 quench 淬火 quench hardening 淬硬 tempering 回火

液压flow control 截流阀 flow control valve 调速阀 overflow valve 溢流阀 restrictor 截流阀 reversing valve 转换阀 solenoids 电磁阀 spill valve 溢流阀

stopcock 龙头、螺旋阀 air bleed 通气孔 blade 叶片 breather 通气孔 bypass 旁通 choke coil 节流管 crane 龙头

dosing nipple 计量管接头 drip stand 集油盘 ejector 顶出油缸 elbow 弯管接头 feeder 加油器 filter gauze 滤网 hand pump 手压泵 hose 软管

jack cylinder 动力油缸 manifold 管道 oil collecting tray 集油盘 oil drain 放油嘴 oil drain plug 油塞 oil feed 进油嘴 one- way 单作用 P.O.= pilot operated 液控 piston 活塞

pump flow 泵的流量 reservoir 油箱 rotac(t)= rotary actuator 旋转激励器 SCAV = scavenge 回油 screen 滤网 seal ring 密封圈 sealing gasket 密封衬垫 settling tank 沉淀池 spyots 管接头 stop cock 管塞 valve 阀

viscosity 粘度汽车

ABS = antilock brake system 防抱死系统

cab 化油器 cup plugs 碗形塞 FIAT = Fabbrica Italiana Automobile 菲亚特 Torino flow guide 导流板 steeple’s speed variation 无级变速

universal coupling 万向联轴节

电气alternating current 交流电 analog to digit A/D 模/数 armature 转子 synchronization 同步 asynchronous 异步

asynchronous motor 异步电动机 battery socket 电源插座

blown (保险丝)烧断 breaker 断路器 direct current 直流电 dog 撞块 feedback 反馈 fuse 保险丝 real power 有功功率 rectifier 整流器 regulated(stabilized)power supply 稳压电源

synchronous motor 同步电动机 transformer 变压器

trunk relay 中间继电器 useful horsepower 有效功率

duration 持续时间,工作时间 LED = light emitting diode 发光二极管 amber 淡黄色的 thumbwheel 拨码开关 simultanously 同时

external 外部的 blink 闪烁

术语fatigue 疲劳

fatigue fracture 疲劳裂纹 stress-strain diagram 应力-应变图 stress concentration 集中应力

其它access 进入 accordingly 相应的 adjacent 相邻的 align 调整

amber 淡黄色的 annunciator 信号装置 approx.= approximate 大约 cabinet 柜、箱 characteristics 特性 convenient 方便 CRM=counting rate meter 计数表

cubic 立方

de-energizing 重复通电 deenergize 断开 depict 绘画 divulged

duplicate 加倍

duplicate palm 同时按下 eliminates 需要 energize 通电

equivalent 相同的、等效的 erratic 不稳定的 evenly 均匀

externally 外部、外面、附带的 facilitate 便于 feather 羽毛 feature 特点

finger 输送抓手

flexible 易(可)弯的 flush 冲洗 GA=general arrangement 总布置图 gallon 加仑

gauge 测量 gauge isolator 测量仪 I.D.= inside diameter 内径 identical 相同的

index 标志、指示、分度头 indicating 指示,标志 indication 读数

initiate 开始、起始 isolator 绝缘体

jam 挤紧、塞住 miscellaneous 各式各样的 loan 借出物、贷款 obstructions 障碍、阻碍

off the shelf 流行的、现用的 opp. Hand 对侧

optional 不是必需的、附加的 piror (在)先的、预先的 palm 掌心 pliable 柔软的 deceleration 减速 plunger 铁心

preliminary 初步的、预先的 probe 探测 recomended 推荐 regulator 调节器 relief 下降

remedy 修理、补救 retain 保留

retract 缩进(回) reverse 相反 rugged 坚固 self contained 自备 sequential 连续 shop order 工作单 shrink 收缩 significant 有效的 simplified 简化 simultaneous 同时 skid rail 滑道 slot 狭孔 smpact 紧凑

sound enclosure 声音屏蔽

spec.= specification 详述,规格,说明书,规范

symptom 迹象 temp.= temperature 温度 test station 测点 two-way 双作用 universal 通用的

utilize 利用、应用 vessel 容器

virtually 实际上、本质上 volumetric 容积 weld 焊接

zone 区域、范围 shielded metal arc welding 手工电弧焊 maintainer 维修工 attendant 维修人员 maintenance manual 维修手册 oil buffer 油压减震器

remote 遥控的、远程的 malfunction 故障 interval 间隔

designate 标明、指定 execute 执行 enclosure 外壳

status 状况、状态、地位 register 存储

troubleshoot 寻找故障

legend 图例、说明、铭文 option 挑选

elapse 过去、经过 signicantly 大大地 exceed 大于 allotted 规定的 alternately 交替的 consumption 消耗200924

optical 光学的,视力的 interference 冲突,干涉 Present(ly)当前的 previously 以前的 temporary 临时的 Active 主动的 Passive 被动的 synchronize 同步

范文2:机械工程图中常用的英语词汇

机械工程图中常用的英语词汇齿轮加工英语搜索

关于“齿轮加工英语”的内容本站搜索更多关于“齿轮加工英语”的内容 Abbreviation 缩写 Accuracy 精度、准确性 Acme thread 梯形螺纹(29°)

Addendum 齿顶高 Addendum angle 齿顶角 Addendum circle 齿顶圆

Addendum of mating gear 啮合齿轮的齿顶高

Adjacent-part lines 相邻零件线 Aligned sections 旋转剖视 Aligned view旋转视图 Allowance 容差、加工余量

Alloy 合金 Alloy steel 合金钢 Alphabet 字母 Alteration 变更、更改

Alternate-position views 位置改变的视图

Alternator 交流发电机 Induction alternator 感应(交流)发电机 Motor alternator 电动(交流)发电机 Single-phase alternator 单向(交流)发电机 Synchronous alternator 同步(交流)发电机 Three-phase alternator 三相(交流)发电机

Amount 总量、总计

Analyzable assembly 分析装配图

Anchor bolt 地脚螺栓

Angles 角 Acute angle 锐角 Blunt angle 钝角 Right angle 直角

Sliding angle 摩擦角 Spiral angle 螺旋角 Taper angle 锥角 Angular 有角的

Angular bearing 径向止推轴承 Angular bevel gears 斜交伞齿轮

Angular gear人字齿轮 Angular section斜剖面

Anneal 退火 Approval 批准、许可

Arc 弧、圆弧

Arc thickness 弧长厚度(齿厚) Arc welding 弧焊 Arrangement 布置、装置 Arrangement of views 视图的布置 Clamping arrangement 夹紧装置 Cramping arrangement 紧固装置 General arrangement 总体布置

Arrow 箭头 Arrowheads 箭头 Assembly 装配图、组装图 Assembly drawing 装配图 Assembly drawing number 装配图图号 Assembly for installation 安装图 Assembly parts 组装配合零件 Assembly sections 装配图剖视 Assembly sketches 装配草图 Auxiliary elevation 辅助立面图

Auxiliary line辅助线 Auxiliary section 辅助剖视 Auxiliary surface 辅助面 Auxiliary view 辅助视图

Average 平均数 Axial 轴的、轴向的 Axial pitch 轴向节距 Axial plane 轴向平面

Axial thickness 轴向厚度

Axis 轴线、中心线 Axis of revolution 回转轴线 Axis of rotation 旋转轴线 Axis of symmetry 对称轴线 Horizontal axis 水平轴

Major axis 长轴 Minor axis 短轴 Vertical axis 垂直轴

X axis X轴 Y axis Y轴 Axle 轴

Axle bearing 轴向(止推)轴承 Axle sleeve 轴向(止推)套筒 Axonometric drawing 轴测图

范文3:分类词汇:英语国家铁路运输常见词汇(英汉对照)

分类词汇:英语国家铁路运输常见词汇(英汉对照)发布人:圣才学习网发布日期:20102611:59共11人浏览[大][中][小]导读:关于一个国家铁路运输的词汇你到底知道多少呢?我们一起来看看吧! elevated railway, overhead railway, aerial railway 高架铁路 mine railway 矿区铁路

funicular (railway)缆索铁路,登山铁路 light railway line 轻便铁道 urban railway 市区铁路 railway network 铁路网 railway transport 铁路运输 trial run 试车 open to traffic 通车 porter 搬运工人 ticket inspector 查票员 ticket 车票

single ticket, oneway ticket 单程票 return ticket, roundtrip ticket 来回票 platform ticket 站台票 railway station 车站 station hall 车站大厅 information desk 服务台 waiting room 候车室 passenger station 客车站 time-table 时刻表

arrival time-table 到站时刻表 departure time-table 发车时刻表 ticket-collector, gateman 收票员 ticket office, booking office 售票处 junction 枢纽站

rail and water terminal 水陆联运站 platform bridge 天桥 luggage barrow 推行李车

enquiry office, information desk 问讯处 way station 小站 label 行李标签 luggage office 行李房

left-luggage office 行李暂存处

platform-ticket 验票口 barrier 栅栏门 platform 站台

(electric) platform truck 站台车 platform tunnel 站台地道 platform roofing 站台顶棚 station-master 站长 terminal; terminus 终点站 escalator 自动扶梯

The train leaves the station at..., The train is due out at...火车在(某时)离站 to have one's ticket punched (给检票员)检票10 minutes behind schedule 晚点十分钟 to change trains at...在(某地)换车 The train is due at...在(某时)到达 to break the journey 中途下车

dining car, restaurant car, diner 餐车 pantry 餐车食品室

open wagon,(railway) wagon,(railway) truck 敞车 carriage, coach, car 车厢 roof 车顶

concertina walls (车厢通道两侧的)伸缩篷 step; foot board (车厢门口的)踏板 gangway (车厢的)通道 lidded ashtray 带盖烟灰盒 tank wagon 罐车 mixed train 混合列车

freight train, goods train 货物列车 engine, locomotive 机车 window seat 靠窗座位 coach, passenger train 客车 express train, express 快车 refrigerator wagon 冷藏车

car attendant; train attendant 列车员 guard, conductor 列车长 slow train, way train 慢车 covered wagon van, box car 棚车 ordinary train 普通列车

sleeping carriage with cushioned berths 软卧客车 up train 上行车

livestock wagon 牲畜车 sleeping car, sleeper 卧车 down train 下行车

luggage van, baggage car 行李车 rack, baggage rack 行李架

sleeping carriage with semicushioned berths 硬卧客车 ordinary seat 硬席

carriage with semicushioned seats 硬座车 mail car 邮政车

mail and luggage van 邮政行李车 through train 直达车 special train 专车

pointsman, switchman 道岔工人

signal for blocking the track, block signal 闭塞信号 semaphore signal, home signal 臂板信号 warehouse 仓库

siding, sidetrack 侧线,旁轨 turnout 岔道

weighing machine 秤重机 derailing (火车)出轨 single line (track) rail 单线 points, switches 道岔

switch lock, point lock 道岔锁

wait sign, wait signal 等候标志(信号) marshalling yard, shunting yard 调车场 dispatching 调度 dispatcher 调度员 crossover 渡线,转线轨道 rail 钢轨 track 轨道

sleeper, railroad tie 轨枕 rail chair 轨座

buffer stop, bumping post 缓冲桩 goods shed, freight depot 货棚 goods station 货运站,货站

container 集装箱

locomotive (engine) shed 机车库 station warning sign 进站预告标 clearance 净空

(signal) gantry (铁路上支持信号装置的)跨线桥 barrier (道口)拦路木 section 路段

reduce speed sign(al)慢行标志(信号) bell and whistle sign, whistle sign 鸣笛预告标 platform car, flat car 平车

grade crossing, level crossing (道路与铁路的)平面交叉 track-laying machine, tracklayer 铺轨机 volume of railway freight 铁路货运量 railway connections 铁路交叉点,铁路联络线 railway warning sign 铁路警告标志 railway clearance 铁路净空 railroad bed 铁路路基

railway curve 铁路曲线(弯道) railway tunnel 铁路隧道

stop sign(al)停车标志(信号) danger sign(al)危险标志(信号) unprotected crossing 无防护设备的道口 signal light (lamp)信号灯

signal box, signalman's cabin 信号房 signalman 信号员 wing rail (of frog)翼轨

distant signal, disk signal, target 圆盘信号机 back-turning section 折返段 frog 辙叉,岔心

turn-table 车台,旋车盘

point (box), switch (box)转辙器 switch signal, point indicator 转辙信号

范文4:农机常见词汇

农机常见词汇 shovel 铁锹 spade 铲 hoe 锄

weeding hoe 除草锄

mechanical hoe 动力锄

rake 搂草机

fork 叉子

hayfork, pitchfork 干草叉 scythe 大钐刀

sickle 镰刀 flail 连枷

billhook, brushhook 钩镰(field)roller 滚压器 Plough犁(美作:plow) ridging plough, ridger 起垄犁 weeding machine 除草机

weeder, weeding hook 除草锄 weeding fork 除草叉 disc harrow 圆盘耙 clod crusher 碎土块机 tractor 拖拉机

sprinkler 喷水器,人工降雨器 manure spreader 撒肥机

fertilizer distributor 化肥撒肥机

rotovator 中耕机(美作:cultivator) planter 种植机

cotton picker 摘棉机

potato harvester 马铃薯收割机 seeder, broadcaster 播种机

seed drill, drilling machine 条播机 mower 割草机

(power)mower 动力割草机 harvester, reaper 收割机

combine (harvester)联合收割机 binder 捆束机 bale loader 装草机

harvesting machinery 收割机械 threshing machine, thresher 脱粒机 winnower, winnowing machine 风选机sheafer 束禾机

grader, sorter 分类机,分级机 sieve 细筛

winepress 葡萄榨汁机

milking machine 挤奶机 churn 搅乳器

范文5:英语日常用语和词汇

1.境外填表常用词汇姓 Family name ,Surname 名 First Name ,Given name 性别 sex ,gender 国籍 nationality , country of citizenship 签名 signature 职业 occupation 登岸 Disembarkation 护照 Passport ,签证 Visa 护照号 passport number

原住地 country of origin 前往国 destination country 登机城市 city where you boarded 签发日期 date of issue 出生日期 date of birth, birth date 偕行人数 accompanying number 官方填写 official use only 商务签证 Business Visa 观光签证 Tourist Visa 签证签发地 city where visa was issued 登机、启程 Embarkation

2.在机场大号 large,中号 medium,小号small 行李 Baggage; Luggage

登机证 Boarding Card ,Boarding Pass 机场税 Airport Tax 纪念品 Souvenir 行李牌 Baggage Tag 退税处 Tax-free refund 登机证 Boarding Card ,Boarding Pass 机场税 Airport Tax 入境大厅 Arrival Lobby 出境大厅 Departure Lobby 货币申报 Currency Declaration 免税商品 Duty-Free Items 随身行李 Carry-on baggage 行李推车 Luggage Cart 登机门号码 Gate Number

海关申报处 Customs Service Area 托运的行李 Checked baggage 行李领取处 Baggage claim area 航站、终点站 Terminal 登机手续办理处 Check in Counter

3.在飞机上厕所 Lavatory;washroom;toilet; W.C.=water closet; rest room 男厕 Men's; Gent's; Gentlemen's 女厕 Women's; Lady's 空闲 Vacant 使用中 Occupied

男(女)空服员 Steward (Stewardess)机内免税贩卖 In-Flight Sales

4.钱币兑换汇率 Exchange rate 手续费 Commission 旅行支票 Traveler's check 银行买入价 We buy(Bid)银行卖出价 We sell(Ask)外币兑换店 Currency Exchange Shop

5.在酒店前台 Front Desk ,Reception 咖啡馆 Coffee shop 客房服务 Room Service 酒店大堂 Lobby 退房(时间) Check Out (Time)服务员,侍者 waiter 电话叫醒服务 Wake Up Call ,Morning Call 入住登记手续 Check-in

6.日常用语

How do you do,I’m glad to meet you.你好,很高兴认识你

How do you do. Glad to meet you, too.你好,我也很高兴认识你 It's nice meeting you.很高兴认识你

May I have your name, please?请问你叫什么名字?

May I try it on?我能试穿一下吗? How much?多少钱? Please show me the menu.请把菜单给我。 Cheers! Bottoms up!干杯! I'm lost.Could you do me a favor to find my hotel?我迷路了,您能告诉我怎么回饭店吗? Could you take a picture for me?你能帮我拍照吗?

Thank you very much.非常感谢。 You're welcome.不客气。

Let's keep in touch.让我们保持联系。 How can I get in touch with you?我怎样能跟你联络上? I'll do my best.我将会尽我最大努力

Wait a moment please.请稍等一下 Parting 告别(1)

主要句型:

So nice to know you.认识您很高兴。

Glad to have met you.认识了您很高兴。

情景会话: A: So nice to know you. B: Glad to have met you. Good night. A: Good night. See you on Friday. B: See you then.用法说明: Glad to have met you.是认识了您很高兴的意思,这是分别时所说的话。Glad to meet you.是见面时的用语,不要混淆。Good night.用升调,这是晚间分别时的客套话。晚间见面时应当说 Good evening.在英语中,告别是比较讲究的,通常不会突然分手或者匆匆离去,一般的情况下,是先结束谈话,然后再告别离开。通常告别前的用语表明了谈话快要结束了,比如说: So nice to know you.或 So nice to have met you.因为直接说再见会被视为不礼貌。补充情景对话: A: Well. I don’t want to take too much of your time. B: Not at all, it’s nice seeing you again. A: Nice seeing you again too. B: Ok. Thanks for coming. A: Good-bye. B: Bye.替换练习:

1. Nice seeing you again too.2. Thanks for coming. inviting me 邀请我 showing me around 带我游览

seeing me off 为我送行

Seeing a doctor 看医生

基本词汇:

flu 感冒

dizzy 头晕 to feel dizzy 感到头晕 headache 头痛 to have got a headache 患了头痛情景会话: A: I feel dizzy and I’ve got a headache. B: How long have you had it? A: I came on last Friday. B: I should say you’ve got a flu.用法说明:在英美国家,预约看病是必须的,去医院或去看私人医生都一样。诊治的时候,医生会问一些诸如What’s your problem?/What’s the trouble?/ What’s wrong?等问题以了解病情。而病人则要向医生叙述病情,如会话中的I feel I feel dizzy and I’ve got a headache.(我感到头晕和头痛。)或者可以说I’ve got a bad cold./ I’ve got a terrible headache.等。医生一般采用指令句式,语式简洁,说话语气令人宽慰。

补充情景对话:

A: I keep feeling shivery and I’ve got a bad cough.我一直感到发冷并且咳嗽得厉害。

B: How long have you been like this? A: Three days now. B: You seem to have got a chill.替换练习: I keep feeling shivery and I’ve got a bad cough.我一直感到发冷并且咳嗽得厉害。 a sore throat 喉咙痛 a temperature 发烧 a headache 头痛 Talking about weather 谈论天气主要句型: Lovely day, isn’t it?

Does it rain quite often here? Autumn is the best season in Hangzhou.情景会话:

A: Lovely day, isn’t it? B: Yes. It’s terrific. Does it rain quite often here? A: Not really in this season. Usually it rains a lot in spring. Autumn is the best season in Hangzhou. B: So I come at the right time.用法说明:在英语国家里,对天气的重视程度也不亚于中国人,而且特别愿意谈论天气,天气变化人们时时关心。此外谈论天气也是寒暄的一种方法,也可以

显示西方人所崇尚的一种绅士风度。

英语文化中,人们见面谈论天气,既可作寒暄语,又可以用来打破僵局,其目的是通过双方的寒暄达到交际和沟通的目的。

对话中所用的Lovely day, isn’t it?旨在打开谈话的开端,然后再谈论别的话题。

补充情景对话:

A: Beautiful day, isn’t it? B: Yes. It’s sunny and bright.

A: How do you like the weather in Hangzhou? B: I like the autumn here. The sky is blue and the air is extremely fresh.

替换练习:

Lovely day, isn’t it? Sunny 晴朗的 Nice and bright 晴朗又明媚 Wonderful 好的

Booking airline tickets 订飞机票基本词汇: fly 飞,飞行 economy 经济舱 to go economy 坐经济舱

主要句型:

I want to fly to Hong Kong on October 30th.我要在10月30日飞往香港。 I want to go economy.我想要经济舱的票。

Dragonair Flight KA621 leaves at 4:00 p.m.港龙航空公司KA621班机下午4:00起飞。

情景会话:

A: I want to fly to Hong Kong on October 30th. B: I will just see what there is. A: I want to go economy, and I prefer the afternoon. B: Dragonair Flight KA621 leaves at 4:00 p.m.

用法说明:

会话中I’d like to book a flight to Beijing for Thursday the 25th.意思是我要订一张25号星期四去北京的飞机票。I want to go economy(我想要经济舱的票),这句中的economy意为an economy class air ticket经济舱机票。

民航售票员需告知客人航空公司名称,航班号及起飞时间,如Dragonair Flight KA621 leaves at 4:00 p.m.

补充情景对话:

A: I’d like to book a flight to Beijing for Thursday the 25th. B: I’ll have a look in the time-table for you. A: I’ll need an economy class open return.我要一张经济舱的不限时间的来回票

B: China Eastern Airline Flight MU5145 takes off at 12:10.

2.I want to go economy.我想要经济舱的票。 a first-class ticket 头等舱票

Buying train tickets 买火车票基本词汇:

single-way 单程 ticket 车票 platform 站台

主要句型:

I want to buy two single-way tickets to Shanghai, please. What time does it reach Shanghai?

情景会话:

A: I want to buy two single-way tickets to Shanghai, please.

B: That’s 58 in all.

A: What time does it reach Shanghai? B: You should be there at 11:30. A: Thank you very much. B: That’s OK.

用法说明:

single-way ticket=single ticket,或single都是单程车票的意思,也可以说I want to buy two singles to Shanghai, please.;return ticket=return 则是来回票,同样也可以说:I want to buy three returns to Suzhou, please.

补充情景对话:

A: I want two return tickets to Suzhou, please. B: That will be 88 yuan.

A: How long will the journey take? B: It takes three hours.A: Is it necessary to change? B: No. There’s no need to change.

Taking a taxi 乘出租车基本词汇: catch 赶 train 火车 the lights 红绿灯

情景会话:

A: Hangzhou Railway Station, please. I want to catch How much is the fare?票价是多少?

用法说明:

对话中的Does this bus get to the Tiger Spring?意为这趟车去虎跑吗?或者用Is this the right bus for the Tiger Spring?来表达相同的意思。

补充情景对话:

A: Excuse me. Is this the right bus for Lingyin Temple? B: Yes. It’s No.7 Bus. the 11:30 train. B: We should be OK if the lights are with us. A: Here we are, sir.15 yuan, please. B: Thank you very much. Here’s the fare and this for you.

用法说明:

对话中We should be OK if the lights are with us.也可以说We’ll be all right if traffic’s not very heavy.意为假如交通不拥挤的话,我们能赶到的。

出租车都装有应付车资的仪表,不管开车所化时间和实际距离是多少,司机必须按照仪表上所指示的车资收费,抵达后应明确告诉客人车费。在国外,客人有给小费的习惯。如果客人给小费,也不必推辞,收下并说谢谢即可。

补充情景对话:

A: Zhejiang World Trade Centre, please. I have to be there by 10:15. B: We’ll be all right if traffic’s not very heavy.

A: Here you are, sir. You are just in time.18 yuan, please. B: Thank you so much indeed. Please keep the change.

2.We should be OK if the lights are with us. if the traffic is not heavy 如果交通不拥挤的话 if there are no hold-ups 如果路上不耽搁的话

Taking a bus 乘公交车基本词汇: to get to 开往 fare 车票

主要句型:

Does this bus get to the Tiger Spring? Yes. It’s Bus No.4. A: Do I have to change? B: No. Lingyin Temple is the terminal of this bus. A: I really appreciate your help. B: My pleasure.

At the bank 在银行基本词汇: open 开具 curren 通用的;现时的 account 账户 to open an account 开个账户 a current account 活期账户

主要句型:

I want to open an account here.我想在此开个账户

What kind of account do you want?您想开哪种账户?

情景会话:

A: Excuse me, madam. What can I do for you? B: I want to open an account here. A: What kind of account do you want? B: A current account, please.

用法说明:

去银行主要是为了存款和取款,依据不同的支取方式,客户的存款方式也各不相同。所以开户时银行职员会问开立何种账户(account),是现金账户(saving account)还是支票账户checking account),或是开立信用卡(signing a credit card)。

在业务中,口头交际通常是一问一答式的,语体也跟在其他公共场所一样。客户说明来意时最长用的句型是“I’d like to ”,“I want to ”,前者语气委婉,而后者稍显直露。也可以直接用问句,如“Can I open an account here?”(我可不可以在这开个账户?),这种问话方式显得较为随便。

补充情景对话:

A: Excuse me, sir. Can I help you? B: I’d like to open an account with you. A: A deposit or current account? B: A deposit, please. A: Our minimum deposit for savings account is 100 A: Certainly.

替换练习:

I have a room registered in your hotel. My name is John Smith. a table reserved in your restaurant 在这家饭店预定了一张桌子

dollars. B: That’s quite all right.

At the hotel 宾馆服务基本词汇: register 登记 hotel 饭店 Just a minute.稍候。 single room 单人间 double room 双人间

主要句型:

I have a room registered in your hotel.我在这家宾馆预定了一个房间。

情景会话:

A: Good evening, sir. Can I help you? B: I have a room registered in your hotel. My name is John Smith. A: Just a minute, please. Yes, a single room for October 15. B: That's right.

用法说明:

到达所预定的饭店后,首先要到总台询问房间是否已经确认,这时候总台的服务员会马上查询记录,通常接待的问话是Can I help you?或What can I do for you?这类的句型,意思是我能帮你吗?回答的时候只需报出名字和预定的时间就可以了。

to have a room registered的意思是登记了一个房间。Just a minute, please.是请您稍候的意思,表达同样的意思也可以说A moment please.。October 15应该读成:15th;October 20应该读成:20th

补充情景对话:

A: Excuse me. I’m John Smith from the United States. I have made a reservation here for a week. B: OK. Let me check. Ah yes. It’s for you and your friend. A: That’s right.

B: Would you please fill out this form? a double room registered in your hotel 在这家宾馆预定了一个双人房间 a return ticket reserved in your agency 在这家售票处预定了一张回程票

Festivals 过节(1)基本词汇: National Day 国庆节 to think about 考虑

主要句型:

Have you got anything to do during the holiday? How about you?

情景会话:

A: Tomorrow will be National Day. Have you got anything to do during the holiday? B: Yes, I ’m thinking about going to the West Lake. How about you? A: I will stay at home. My parents will come to visit me. B: Have a pleasant holiday, Miss Zhang . A: The same to you!你也一样。

用法说明:

全世界各地区各民族对自己的节日都特别地重视,不同的节日在他们的心目中有其不同的重要性。英美国家的许多节日大都是与宗教有关的,如:圣诞节(Christmas),感恩节(Thanksgiving Day),复活节(Easter)等。节日期间,朋友或熟人见面都会互相问候,说一些如:新年好(Happy New Year!),圣诞快乐(Merry Christmas!),复活节快乐(Happy Easter!)等祝福的话。

对话中的How about you?意为你的计划呢?你呢?to stay at home呆在家里; come to visit us 来看我们;parent父亲或母亲;parents父母,双亲。

在国定假日期间,许多人都会有出游的计划。如要询问别人有什么计划,可以这样问: Have you got anything to do during the holiday?还有,并在对话中捎上祝福,如Have a pleasant holiday!或 Enjoy your holiday!假日愉快!这也是很重要的。

补充情景对话: A: Happy Easter! B: Thanks. And you too! A: We are giving a party. Would you come? B: No, thanks. I’ve something else. And have a good B: That’s fine.

补充情景对话:

A: Welcome to our hotel. Have you made a reservation with us? B: Yes. It’s Room 18.

time. A: You too.

Attending a customer 招呼顾客主要句型: May I help you? Here you are.

情景会话:

A: Good morning! May I help you? B: Yes, coffee for two, please. A: OK. Here you are. B: Thank you.

用法说明:

Good morning!是招呼语。从早晨到中午十二点之间都可以用 Good morning!来打招呼。 Good afternoon!是午后到傍晚前这段时间用来问候他人的招呼语。晚上的招呼语是 Good evening!

补充情景对话:

A: Good afternoon, sir. What can I do for you? B: I want to buy a T-shirt. A: We have some. Do you like this one? B: It’s terrific.

替换练习:

May I help you?您要点什么吗?

What would you like to have?您要点什么吗? What would you like to drink?您要喝点什么? What would you like today?您今天要点什么?

Seating the guests 带位基本词汇:

reservation 预约 show 带领

情景会话:

A: Welcome to our restaurant. Have you made a reservation with us? B: Yes. Our table is No.6. A: This way, please. I will show you to your table. A: We are expecting you, sir. This way, please. I’ll show you to your room.

Making an invitation 邀请主要句型:

We'll have an evening party. Please come and join us. I'd be glad to go.

情景会话:

A: We'll have an evening party. Please come and join us.

B: That’s very kind of you. I'd be glad to go. When and where?

A: This Friday evening in my home. B: That's fine. I'll be there.

用法说明:

邀请可以分为书面邀请和口头邀请两种。口头邀请熟人或朋友参加周末聚会,生日聚会,专题晚会等时,因为是经常见面,说得也比较简单,开门见山。

对于别人的邀请需要明确的予以回答,接受或者拒绝,当然首先还是得对邀请者的好意表示感谢,如果能赴约的话,再问清楚地点和时间,如果拒绝这个邀请的话,最好先表示歉意,并说明不能去的原因,不然会被认为是失礼的。

谢谢别人的邀请,常用的用语是“It’s very kind of you.”意思是“太好了”,kind 还可用nice, good 等词代替。

补充情景对话:

A: Would you like to come to our party next Friday evening?

B: That sounds fine, but I’m afraid I can’t go because I have work to do. A. What a pity. B. I’m sorry for it. Anyhow, thank you just the same.

替换练习:

1. We'll have an evening party. a birthday party 生日晚会

a barbecue 烧烤 a picnic 野炊

Making an appointment 约会主要句型:

I have an appointment with Mr. Brown. Can you wait a moment, please?

情景会话:

A: Good afternoon, sir. B: Good afternoon. My name is John Smith. I have an 断别人的讲话,打喷嚏,请求别人原谅时,常用Excuse me.等句型来表示,这时要注意,歉意的程度要表达得恰如其分,不能太夸大,也不能太客气。

yes 用升调表示不明白,表示希望对方说下去,也可用What? Pardon.后用升调,表示没听清楚对方的话,请对方再重复一遍。

补充情景对话:

A: I am sorry. I broke your glasses. I must apologize. B: I beg your pardon. A: I broke your glasses. appointment with Mr. Brown.

A: Ah, yes. Your appointment is at 4:15. Can you wait a moment, please?

B: Yes, of course. Thanks.

用法说明:

在国外工作节奏都比较快,所以有事商谈需要预约,与某人预先约定叫to make an appointment with somebody或者to fix an appointment with somebody;守约是to keep one’s appointment;取消约会是to cancel an appointment;失约是to break the appointment。

在语言文化中,需要注意的是,在英语国家,人们都习惯于拟定好各自的日程安排。无论是出门旅游、看病,还是请客吃饭、参加娱乐活动、走亲访友,都必须事先约好。一般说来,除了亲戚或最好的朋友之外,对一般的朋友和熟人的拜访,预约时间是非常必要的,因为人们通常不大欢迎不速之客,更不希望因此而使自己的计划受到影响。如果以约定好时间,就要按时赴约,不能早到,也不能迟到。如果是很早以前约好的,那最好在时间到来的前一周再加以确认。

Expressing regret and apologizing(1)遗憾与道歉(1)情景会话: A: Excuse me. B: Yes?

A: Is this your book? B: Pardon.

A: Is this your book?

B: Oh, yes. Thank you very much.

用法说明:

日常生活中,人们难免会有某种过失,给他人造成麻烦或不便,这时一般应表示歉意,在英语文化中,歉意可分为两种情形。向别人打听情况、打B: It’s nothing. Please forget it.

Expressing praise and compliment 称赞与夸奖情景会话:

A: Hi, Mr. Smith. How are you?

B: Very well. Thank you. Oh, you look beautiful today.

A: Thank you very much.非常感谢。

用法说明:

西方文化崇尚称赞与夸奖,与中国文化中的谦虚形成强烈的对比。西方文化把称赞与夸奖看成日常生活和人际交往中的必需。当一个人得到另一个人的称赞时,通常的反应是表示感谢,我们在与西方人交往时,听到称赞和夸奖应注意做出恰当回答。

补充情景对话:

A: You look smart today. B: Thank you. I had a good rest A: You have a very clever son. B: Thank you.

Expressing thanks 表示感谢情景会话:

A: Thank you for your wonderful meal. B: Oh, I’m glad you liked it.

A: I really have enjoyed it. Thanks a lot. B: Thank you for coming.

用法说明:

Thank you for your help.谢谢您的帮助。

Thank you all the same.或Thank you just the same.同样得谢谢您。

应注意的是,A接受了B的盛情款待,A表示了感谢,而B同样要向A表示感谢。在英语国家,无论何时何地,任何人为你做任何一件事,无论是份内份外,受惠一方总是需表示感谢。这就是以礼相待。比如说:Thank you for your help.当请求别人帮助,他人无能为力或婉言拒绝,同样要表示感谢。如:Thank you all the same.或Thank you just the same.总之,在英语交际中“Thank 19. This is today’s specialty.这是今天的特色菜。20. What kind of room would you like?21. Could you follow me, please?22. Do you like the weather in Hangzhou?23. Spring and autumn are the best seasons in Hangzhou.

25. Hangzhou is famous for its West Lake. you.”要脱口而出。

Looking for lost properties 寻找失物基本词汇:

purse 钱包(女用) wallet 钱包(男用)

the Lost Property Office 失物招领处

主要句型:

I've got a problem.

Why don't you check the Lost Property Office?

情景会话:

A: Excuse me. I've got a problem. I think I've lost my wallet.

B: Are you sure it's not in your bag? A: Yes. I've looked for it. B: Why don't you check the Lost Property Office? A: That's a good idea. Thank you.

用法说明:

需要注意的是,在英语中,遇到麻烦事情时,常用的表达方式有:“I’ve got a problem.”,意思是我有点麻烦或我出了点问题。

遗失了东西通常可以去失物招领处the lost property office或 the lost and found office询问,也可以去警察局the police station请求帮助。

补充情景对话:

A: Excuse me. I’ve got a problem. I can’t find my luggage. B: Why don’t you check the Lost and Found Office? A: Thank you very much.

1. Welcome to Hangzhou.

2. Welcome to the West Lake Expo.7. You first, please!

11. You’re welcome.不用谢。12. It’s my pleasure.我很乐意。13. Hope you could help me.

15. Sorry to trouble you.对不起,麻烦您了。

26. Hangzhou is a paradise on earth.27. Hangzhou is home away from home.28. You are welcome to visit Hangzhou again.

范文6:常用植物英语词汇

常用植物英语词汇 tomato 番茄,西红柿 asparagus 芦笋 cucumber 黄瓜

aubergine, eggplant 茄子 bean 菜豆

beet, beetroot 甜菜 pepper 胡椒 pimiento 甜椒 potato 马铃薯 carrot 胡萝卜

cauliflower 菜花,花椰菜 pumpkin 西葫芦 broad bean 蚕豆 cabbage 圆白菜,卷心菜 chilli 辣椒 garlic 蒜 chive 葱 fennel 茴香 cos lettuce 莴苣 marrow 嫩葫芦 melon 香瓜,甜瓜 mushroom, celery 芹菜 onion 韭 leek 韭菜 radish 萝卜 tarragon 狭叶青蒿 thyme 百里香 mushroom 蘑菇 artichoke 洋蓟

broccoli, brocoli 硬花甘蓝 Brussels sprouts 芽甘蓝 caper 刺山柑,老鼠瓜 cardoon 刺菜蓟

chervil 雪维菜,细叶芹 chick-pea 鹰嘴豆 chicory 苣荬菜 cress 水田芥

cumin, cummin 孜然芹,枯茗 dandelion 蒲公英 French bean 法国菜豆 gherkin 嫩黄瓜 horseradish 辣根

Jerusalem artichoke 洋姜,鬼子姜 kale 无头甘蓝 kohlrabi 甘蓝 laurel 月桂 lentil 兵豆 lettuce 莴苣

lupin 羽扇豆(美作:lupine) parsley 欧芹 parsnip 欧防风 pea 豌豆 rhubarb 大黄 salsify 婆罗门参 sorrel 掌叶大黄 truffle 块菌 turnip 芜菁 watercress 豆瓣菜 pine 松 cerdar 雪松类 larch 落叶松 juniper 杜松 cone 松果 cypress 柏树 bamboo 竹 box 黄杨 poplar 白杨

cottonwood 三角叶杨

osier 紫皮柳树 willow 垂柳 birch 白桦 maple 枫树 sequoia 红杉 fir 冷杉

hemlock spruce 铁杉 spruce 云杉 yew 紫杉 eucalytus 桉树 locust 洋槐 wattle 金合欢树 camphor tree 樟树 rosewood 紫檀 ebony 乌檀 sandalwood 檀香木 satinwood 椴木 linden 椴树 rowan 欧洲山梨 teak 柚木树 elm 榆木树 oak 橡树 acorn 橡树果 sycamore 美国梧桐 ginkgo 银杏树 holly 冬青 coco 椰树 date 枣椰树 Hickory 山核桃树 plane tree 悬铃树 beech 山毛榉 horse chestnut 七叶树 blackthorn 黑刺李 baobab 猴面包树 elder 接骨木

myrtle 桃金娘科植物 cycad 苏铁 oil palm 油棕榈树 treetop 树梢 branch 树枝 twig 小树枝 bough 大树枝 knot 树节 trunk 树干 leaf 树叶 sprout 新芽 sapling 树苗 stump 树桩 root 树根 root hair 根毛 taproot 主根 bark 树皮 resin 树脂 pith 木髓 cambium 形成层 ring 年轮 wood 木材 Flowers 花卉 amaryllis 孤挺花 anemone 银莲花 anther 花药 apple 苹果 apricot 杏 azalea 杜鹃花 balsam 凤仙花 begonia 秋海棠 Brazil 巴西木 Cactus 仙人掌 camellia 山茶花 canna 美人蕉

cantury plant 龙舌兰

carnation 麝香石竹(康乃馨) Chinese enkianthus 灯笼花

Chinese flowering crab-apple 海棠花 chrysanthemum 菊花 cosmos 大波斯菊 crocus 番红花 cyclamen 仙客来 daffodil 黄水仙 dahlia 大丽花 daisy 雏菊 daphne 瑞香 datura 曼陀罗 dogwood 山茱萸 epiphyllum 昙花 freesia 小苍兰 fringed iris 蝴蝶花 fuchsia 倒挂金钟 gardenia 栀子 geranium 大竺葵 gladiolus 剑兰 hawthorn 山楂 hibiscus 木槿 hyacinth 风信花 hydrangea 八仙花 India canna 美人蕉 iris 蝴蝶花 jasmine 茉莉 lilac 紫丁香 lily 百合花 mangnolia 木兰花 mangnolia 玉兰花 marguerite, daisy 雏菊 marigold 金盏花

morning glory 牵牛(喇叭花)

narcissus 水仙花 nectar gland 蜜腺

night-blooming cereus 仙人掌 oleander 夹竹桃 orange 桔子 orchid 兰花 ovary 子房 pansy 三色堇 pear 梨

peony 牡丹,芍药 petal 花瓣 phalaenopsis 蝶兰 pink 石竹花 pistil 雌蕊 plum 洋李 pollen 花粉 poppy 罂粟花 quince 柑橘 redbud 紫荆

rhododendron 杜鹃花 rose 玫瑰花 sepal 萼片

setose asparagus 文竹 stalk 花柄 stamen 雄蕊 sunflower 向日葵 sweet pea 香豌豆花

touch-me-not (balsam)凤仙花 tulip 郁金香

violet, stock viol, et 紫罗兰 water hyacinth 凤眼兰 wisteria 柴藤 yucca 丝兰

范文7:英语文献综述常用词汇

如何写英语文献综述文献综述(Literautre Review)是科研论文中重要的文体之一。它以作者对各种文献资料的整理、归纳、分析和比较为基础,就某个专题的历史背景、前人的工作、研究现状、争论的焦点及发展前景等方面进行综合、总结和评论。通过阅读文献综述,科研工作者可花费较少的时间获得较多的关于某一专题系统而具体的信息,了解其研究现状、存在的问题和未来的发展方向。因此,它的学术水平和价值受到特别的重视。文献综述往往被收集在专业期刊的Review栏目中,常见的有Survey, Advances, Progress, Recent Advances,Update 和Annual Review等。

根据写作目的和内容的侧重点,文献综述大致可以分为动态性综述(developmental review)、成就性综述(result review)和争鸣性综述(contentious review)。按时间来划分,文献综述又可分为回顾性综述(retrospective review)和前瞻性综述(prospective review)。根据作者的参与情况,文献综述还可分为归纳性综述(inductive review)和评论性综述(critical review)。文献综述的分类并非绝对,在实际写作中,往往是各种类型综合在一起。一篇结构完整的文献综述应由六个部分组成:标题与作者(title and author)、摘要与关键词(abstract and key words)、引言(introduction)、述评(review)、结论(conclusion)和参考文献(references)。与研究论文相比,文献综述的篇章结构比较自由,但其中最为核心的部分是引言、述评和结论。下面将分别介绍这几个部分的特点及其写作方法。2.1引言(Introduction)引言是文献综述正文的开始部分,主要包括两个内容:一是提出问题;二是介绍综述的范围和内容。提出问题时,作者要给出定义性解释、交代研究背景、简单介绍不同文献的看法和分歧所在并介绍该文献的写作目的;介绍该综述的范围和主要内容时,作者应使用简明扼要的语句加以概括。引言部分通常为200~300词。引言的内容和结构具有以下特点:

(1)综述的引言通常包括定义性解释、研究背景、现存问题或分歧、综述的目的、内容和范围;

(2)使用一般现在时介绍背景知识,使用现在完成时叙述他人成果,使用一般将来时或一般现在时简介本文内容;

(3)句子结构力求简洁明了,多用简单句,并列成份较为常见;

(4)以第三人称主语为主,间或使用第一人称复数充当主语。要将引言的内容清楚地用英文表述出来,常常需要借助以下的语言形式:(1)表定义或解释

①被定义为: is defined as/ has been defined as②所谓是指: Byis meant/ Bywe mean

③指的是: refers to ④包括: includes

⑤有种类型:...is / can be classified into; There are kinds of

⑥我们知道,是一种的常见病: is a common disease that; is known to be a common disease that (2)表现状和分歧

①据发现/报道/证实:It has been found/reported/proved that ②普遍认为:It is generally recognized / agreed/ accepted that ③一般认为:It is thought / regarded/ considered that

④依然是一个尚待解决的问题:remains an unsolved problem.⑤关于目前有两种解释: Two theories have been postulated to explain

⑥第一种理论认为,而第二种理论则认为: The first theory proposes that, whereas the second theory proposes that ⑦一些文献报道;而另一些人持不同观点: Some papers have reported that; however, other groups have disputed these findings.⑧最初的一些研究支持这种看法: Several initial studies seemed to support this concept.(3)表内容和目的

①本综述的目的是:The purpose / aim / object of this reviewis to ②本文综述了有关文献:The pertinent literature is reviewed.③本文综述了:This article reviews/We review ④本文将重点讨论:This review will concentrate on

⑤下面本文就作一简单综述:In the following, a brief review is given of / about

⑥本篇综述的目的是着重阐述:In this review, we aim to highlight ⑦我们将回顾有关的研究:We will review published studies on ⑧我们将重点回顾:We will focus on ⑨本文主要阐述:This review focuses on

⑩本文就作一综述: The following paper reviews

⑾本文并非旨在说服读者:No attempt will be made to convince the reader that 2.2述评(Review)述评是文献综述的核心所在,是对引言的展开和深入。根据引言所提出的问题和限定的范围,作者要对大量有关文献进行系统的整理、归纳、对比和分析,在此基础上列出与主题有关的所有重要学术观点,然后分别加以论述,以便读者获得全面的了解。动态性综述在论述观点时,通常由一般到具体、由过去到最近、由他人观点到自己看法。引述文献时,只介绍主要研究成果和结论性意见,对于研究的材料、方法和过程则不必详述,但成就性综述在介绍创新点时则应多加论述。对于争鸣性综述中尚无定论和存在分歧的观点,只需归纳提及,由读者自己进行思考和判断。述评部分通常较长,为了条理清晰,作者一般将其分成几个部分并给出每个部分的小标题。述评的内容和结构常具有以下特点:述评部分常由几个部分组成,每个部分又有各自的标题及下级标题。回顾前人研究,以时间为序,由远及近。以有叙有议的方式体现述评的功能,叙前人研究,议其结果、探其原因、究其不足。

叙述时使用一般过去时,评论时使用一般现在时或现在完成时。分析评论,特别是表达作者自己的观点时,要客观、谨慎,因此多使用模糊性语言和表推测的语言形式。述评是文献综述的主体部分,借助符合科技文体写作规范的语言形式就显得的颇为重要。善于使用下列表达不仅能使文章流畅清晰,还能使文章彰显学术性。(1)表述观点

①研究表明:Studies show that

②据(已经)发现:It is (has been) found that/ sb. Found that ③据报道:It is (has been) reported that ④有人指出:It has been pointed out that ⑤业已证明: It has been proved / showed that

⑥一般认为:It is generally recognized / agreed / accepted that

⑦有人认为:It is thought / regarded / considered that

⑧已观察到:It has been observed that ⑨必须指出:It must be pointed out that ⑩还得指出:It should be added that ⑾必须承认:It must be admitted that ⑿不用说:It need not be said that ⒀必须强调:It must be emphasized / stressed that ⒁应当讲明:It should be made clear that

⒂一项有趣的发现是:An interesting finding is that

⒃最重要的事实是: Nothing is more important than the fact that ⒄更重要的事实是:A more important fact is that ⒅我认为: I am of the opinion that ⒆有人声称:It is asserted that

⒇多数人一致认为:Most researchers agree that (2)探讨可能性

①可以有把握地说:It may be safely said that ②由此可见:It can be seen from this that

③有(不)可能:It is (not) possible / probable / likely that ④是合乎情理的: It stands to reason that ⑤毫无疑问: There is no doubt that

⑥显然: It is obvious / clear / apparent / evident that ⑦目前尚无临床证据说明: There is no clinical proof of (3)表比较和对照①使用句型

(a)A 与B 之间存在差异(相似点):There are some / a few / many differences (similarities) between A and B.(b)A 与B 在三个方面有不同点:A differs from B / is different fromB in three aspects.(c)一个不同(相同)之处在于:One difference (similarity) seems to be / lies in / is that ②词及词组

on the contrary, in contrast, in comparison, on the other hand be like (unlike)just as be the same as similarly likewise while whereas yet but however differently 2.3综述的结论(Conclusion)

结论不仅是作者对全文的总结,也是作者发表个人意见的部分,一般有标题Conclusion 或Summary,较短的综述如果没有小标题,则往往有As mentioned above,To sum up,To conclude,Inshort,In all 等短语引出结论。结论的内容包括:对述评的归纳、对各种问题的评论性意见、对未来研究的建议或展望。对述评的归纳还可以逐条加序号撰写。有的文献综述不在最后作总体的结论,而是放在述评各部分之后分别总结,内容分别与述评的几大部分相对应,但笔墨的重点放在结果的陈述与评价上。每个部分又由事实陈述、结果评价和研究预测组成。结论是述评的浓缩,语言方面亦如此,除了使用一般现在时态外,大量使用现在完成时,以强调该研究到目前所取得的成果。另外,表比较和评价的语言形式也是该部分的语言特点之一。要写好英语文献综述并非一朝一夕的易事,在对其内容、结构和语言的特征有所了解后,持之以恒的写和练一定会提高写作水平。

范文8:英语作文常用高级词汇

英语作文常用高级词汇

★形容词:

1.贫穷的:poor = needy = impoverished = poverty-stricken 2.富裕的:rich = wealthy = affluent = well-to-do = well-off 3.优秀的:excellent = eminent = top = outstanding 4.积极的,好的:good = conducive = beneficial=advantageous 5.消极的,不良的:bad = detrimental= baneful =undesirable 6.明显的:obvious = apparent = evident =manifest 7.健康的: healthy = robust = sound = wholesome 8.惊人的:surprising = amazing = extraordinary = miraculous 9.美丽的:beautiful = attractive = gorgeous = eye-catching 10.有活力的:energetic = dynamic = vigorous =animated 11.流行的: popular = prevailing = prevalent= pervasive

★动词:

1.提高,加强:improve = enhance= promote = strengthen = optimize 2.引起:cause = trigger = endanger 3.解决:solve =resolve =address = tackle =cope with = deal with 4.拆除:destroy = tear down = knock down = eradicate 5.培养: develop = cultivate = foster = nurture 6.激发,鼓励:encourage = motivate = stimulate = spur 7.认为: think = assert= hold = claim = argue 8.完成:complete = fulfill = accomplish= achieve 9.保留:keep = preserve = retain = hold 10.有害于:destroy = impair = undermine = jeopardize 11.减轻: ease = alleviate = relieve = lighten

★名词:

1.影响:influence= impact 2.危险:danger = perils =hazard 3.污染:pollution = contamination4.人类:human beings= mankind = human race 5.老人: old people= the old = the elderly = the aged = senior citizens 6.幸福:happiness = cheerfulness = well-being 7.老师:teachers = instructors = educators = lecturers 8.教育:education = schooling = family parenting = upbringing 9.青少年:young people = youngsters = youths = adolescents10.优点:advantage = merits = superiority = virtue 11.责任: responsibility = obligation = duty = liability 12.能力: ability = capacity = power = skill 13.职业: job = career = employment = profession 14.娱乐: enjoyment = pastimes = recreation= entertainment 15.孩子: children = offspring = descendant= kid

★短语:

1.充满了:be filled with = be awash with = be inundate with = be saturated with 2.努力:struggle for = aspire after = strive for = spare no efforts for 3.从事: embark on = tap = set about = go in for 4.在当代: in contemporary society = in present-day society= in this day and age 5.大量的: a host of = a multitude of = a vast number of = a vast amount of 1.individuals,characters, folks替换(people ,persons)2: positive, favorable, rosy (美好的),promising(有希望的),perfect, pleasurable , excellent, outstanding, superior替换good 3: dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill (有害的)替换bad,如果bad做表语,可以有be less impressive替换

4.(an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of ,a host of, many, if not most)替换many.注:用many, if not most 一定要小心,many后一定要有词。首先,第一: initially, to begin with, to start with 其次,第二,第三,第四……: furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides 最后: finally, last but not the least 现在(目前), XXXX现象是不可避免且难以否认的

Currently, there is an inevitable and undeniable fact that …… At present, it is inevitable and undeniable that …..

例句: Currently, there is an inevitable and undeniable fact that computer is playing a significant role in our daily lives At present, it is inevitable and undeniable that advertisement has been flooding into our daily lives 随着社会(科技)的发展,人们开始注意到XXXX的重要性

Along with the advance of the society (science and technology), people are attaching much importance to ……

例句: Along with the advance of the society, people are attaching more and more importance to the interview in the job-hunting 最近, XXXXX现象引起了人们的广泛关注

recently, the phenomenon of (that)…… has aroused wide public concern 例句: Recently, the phenomenon that CPI keeps increasing has aroused wide public concern 一部分人认为…….,而另一部分人认为……

Some people argue that….., whereas others maintain that….就我个人而言(老实说),我全力支持前者(后者) As for me, I am in high favor of the former (latter) Personally, I side with the former (latter) Frankly speaking/ To be frank/ To be honest/ Honestly speaking, it is the former (latter) that I approve of 我认为(在我看来,就我看来,我的观点是,我想….) I am convinced that….

As far as I am concerned,….. To my point of view,….. From where I stand,……作为一把双刃剑

as a two-bladed sword, as a double-edged sword 因此,基于以上讨论,我们很容易得出……的结论

hence (Consequently), based on the discussion above, it is easy for us to draw the conclusion that…..

作文中一些可用来替换常用词汇的高级词汇

importantsignificant goodstunning, fabulous, sensational wayapproach, method Useadopt butnevertheless understand/knowfigure so consequently, therefore out