Good Openers

段落开头词句1.随着经济的繁荣 with the booming of the economy 2.随着人民生活水平的显著提高 with the remarkable improvement of people's living standard 3.先进的科学技术 advanced science and technology 4.为我们日常生活增添了情趣 add much spice / flavor to our daily life 5.人们普遍认为 It is commonly believed that…

6.我同意前者(后者)观点 I give my vote to the former / latter opinion.7.引起了广泛的公众关注 Sth. has aroused wide public concern./ Sth has drawn great public attention.8.不可否认 It is undeniable that…

9.热烈的讨论/争论 a heated discussion / debate 10.有争议性的问题 a controversial issue 11.就我而言/就个人而言 As far as I am concerned,/ Personally,12.有充分的理由支持 be supported by sound reasons 13.双方的论点 argument on both sides 14.发挥日益重要作用 play an increasingly important role in…15.对…必不可少 be indispensable to …16.正如谚语所说 As the proverb goes:17.对…产生有利/不利的影响 exert positive / negative effects on…18.利远远大于弊 The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.19.导致,引起 lead to / give rise to / contribute to / result in 20.复杂的社会现象 a complicated social phenomenon 21.责任感/ 成就感 sense of responsibility / achievement 22.竞争与合作精神 sense of competition and cooperation 23.开阔眼界 widen one's horizon / broaden one's vision 24.学习知识和技能 acquire knowledge and skills 25.经济/心理负担 financial burden / psychological burden 26.考虑到诸多因素 take many factors into consideration 27.从另一个角度 from another perspective 28.做出共同努力 make joint efforts 29.对…有益 be beneficial to / be conducive to…30.为社会做贡献 make contributions to the society 31.打下坚实的基础 lay a solid foundation for…32.综合素质 comprehensive quality 33.致力于/投身于 be committed / devoted to…34.应当承认 Admittedly,35.不可推卸的义务 unshakable duty 36.满足需求 satisfy / meet the needs of...37.可靠的信息源 a reliable source of information38.宝贵的自然资源 valuable natural resources 39.因特网 the Internet (一定要由冠词,字母I 大写)40.方便快捷 convenient and efficient 41.在人类生活的方方面面 in all aspects of human life 42.环保的材料 environmentally friendly materials 43.社会进步的体现 a symbol of society progress 44.大大方便了人们的生活 Sth has greatly facilitated people's lives.45.对这一问题持有不同态度 hold different attitudes towards this issue 46.在一定程度上 to some extent 47.理论和实践相结合 integrate theory with practice 48.…必然趋势 an irresistible trend of…

49.日益激烈的社会竞争 the increasingly keen social competition 50.眼前利益 immediate interest/ short-term interest 51.长远利益 long-tem interest 52.…有其自身的优缺点… has its own merits and demerits / pros and cons 53.对…有害 do harm to / be harmful to / be detrimental to 54.交流思想/情感/信息 exchange ideas / emotions / information 55.跟上…的最新发展 keep pace with / keep abreast with the latest development of…

56.…的健康发展 the healthy development of…57.重视 attach great importance to…58.社会地位 social status 59.把时间和精力放在…上 focus one's time and energy on…60.扩大知识面 expand one's scope of knowledge 61.身心两方面 both physically and mentally 62.有直接/间接关系 be directly / indirectly related to…

63.导致很多问题 give rise to / lead to / spell various problems 64.可以替代think的词 believe, claim, maintain, argue, insist, hold the opinion / belief / view that 65.缓解压力/减轻负担 relieve stress / burden 66.优先考虑/发展… give (top) priority to sth.67.与…比较 compared with…/ in comparison with

68.可降解的/可分解的材料 degradable / decomposable material 69.代替 replace / substitute / take the place of 70.提供就业机会 offer job opportunities 71.反映了社会进步的 mirror the social progress/advance 72.增进相互了解 enhance / promote mutual understanding 73.充分利用 make full use of / take advantage of 74.承受更大的工作压力 suffer from heavier work pressure 75.保障社会稳定和繁荣 guarantee the stability and prosperity of our society 76.更多地强调 put more emphasis on…

77.适应社会发展 adapt oneself to the social development 78.实现梦想 realize one's dream79.主要理由列举如下 The main / leading reasons are listed as follows:80.我们还有很长的路要走 We still have a long way to go











Nowadays, more and more teenagers choose to study abroad. As I see it, it is no good sending middle school students abroad to study (主题句). First, middle school students are too young to look after themselves, especially in a foreign country which is totally strange to them. They have to spend a lot of time and energy in getting used to their new life, which is unnecessary if they are at home (扩展句1). What’s more, middle school students are still not mature mentally. Without their parents’ guidance, it is easy for them to ignore their study and even learn to do ill (扩展句2). Besides, studying abroad costs a lot , which is a heavy burden upon their parents(扩展句3). Therefore, parents and students should think twice about studying abroad(结尾句)。




A.主题句的内容要明确具体,具有特定性、单一性、和概括性、切忌笼统。例如: John is a good student 不如John is a diligent student 明确。

Energy is important 不如Energy is important to human beings 明确。 B.主题句的语言要简洁,开门见山。

以题为“Changes in My Hometown”的作文的两个开头段落,第二句比第一句要简洁明了。

a.In recent years, with the development of economy, great changes have taken place in China. There are also many great changes in my hometown. b.Many great changes have taken place in my hometown.


主题句仅仅提出作者的基本观点,要使读者明白并同意作者的观点,就要展开主题句。展开主题句要做到内容清晰、详实,有较强的说服力。展开段落一定要紧紧围绕主题句,不能偏离,不能分散。如主题句She is always ready to help others 就已经限定了她是一个“乐于助人”的人,从而扩展句所体现的内容都必须跟乐于助人有关。如果还涉及她学习成绩优异或学习努力刻苦,就偏离了段落的中心了。(3)展开主题句的办法常用的构段方式有:








例如,你认为“Doing sports is good for health”,你就应该用你所知道的事实证明这一观点的正确性,可以列数字、举例子、摆事实等。(2)统一性






























图画描述段落的结构比较简单,写起来却是最难的,这是因为图画信息的表述有时并不是容易的事情。这就要求在描述图画的时候注意:找到图画描述中最主要的信息描述。如果碰到不会的单词切不可用中文意思套写英语,而是要通过较简单的话复述出图画的大意。图画描述型段落的要求为describe the pictures或者depict the pictures。这种段落的第一句话可用As is shown in the picture,we can see clearly that对图画中的一个主要信息进行描述,然后用on the contrary(或者meanwhile)进行转折,对图画中的另一个主要信息进行描述。最后一句话对图画中反映出的情况进行评价或者总结。段落的基本结构为两句话描述,一句话评论。


其次,找到了图画中事物的象征后,就要确定象征意义之间的某种内在的因果关系,并对这种关系发展的走向进行预测。最后确定怎样写段落的主题句。这其实不是很困难,只要用带有一定概括性的句子开篇就可以了。例如:The primary purpose of the pictures above is to show us that due attention has to be paid to…或者Although the pictures above depicts nothing more than…, its meaning has to be taken seriously.或者The picture above describes nothing but…,however, a penetrating eye can see through its superficial scene and focus on the primary intention of the painter.图画作文段落模板


文章来源:外教一对一 This cartoon depicts_____(描述图画内容).Recently it has become common for people in many walks of life to_____(进一步阐释). It seems to me that the cartoonist is sending a message about_____(图画主题),which is_____(进一步的说明).It seems to be saying that_____(给出细节).In my opinion,_____(个人阐述). This simple picture is a wake-up call for_____(所涉群体,如the educationists).Therefore, it is imperative for us to take drastic measures to put an end to_____(问题所在).On the one hand,we must_____(建议一).It is clear that the cartoonist is urging us to_____(进一步说明).On the other hand,_____(建议二).Only in this way can we_____(展望前景).




6. Shocking, thought-provoking, vivid, humorous, interesting, ironic, impressive

7. As is shown in the table above,….

As is depicted in the picture above, two disabled are running fast towards their destination.

8. What the painter intends to convey to us, I think, is that people’s awareness of environmental protection should be aroused.

Whether you can achieve success or not largely depends on your attitude towards life.

9. There are two reasons accounting for the greenhouse effect.

There are two main reasons accounting for the increase in the number of the students applying for master’s degree this year.

There are two reasons leading to the sharp decline in the number of the wildlife.

10. The picture implies that due attention should be paid to…. The implied meaning of….

The implication of the picture above is obvious:……

11. This drawing reflects a moral question: who are supposed to take the responsibility of attending to the aged parents? This drawing mirrors a ______ question:__________________________.

12. Nowadays fresh water shortage is becoming more and more serious than ever before, especially in those densely populated areas.

The children in the rural areas are badly in need of our help because the strong support from us will help them get out of the current difficulty.

The mutual understanding is badly needed in the modern society.

13. There is a general debate on whether we should continue to hold gala or not.

14. Preserving the environment is of far-reaching significance to the existence of our human beings.

Developing good habits is of great value to our growth in many aspects.

15. It is self-evident that cultivating children’s independence is beneficial to their further


16. To maintain the sustainable development of the ecological system, we should try every means to arouse people’s awareness of environment protection.

17. We should pay great attention to the cultivation of students’ ability to handle the difficult problems independently because it is …..to….

18. We consider it our duty to protect the environment around us because it is closely related to the existence of our human beings.

We consider it important to have a good command of English.非谓语动词(不定式,分词,动名词)同位语

B, a famous British football player, is admired by a majority of young people.插入语

In a sense, to some extent

19. As far as our young generation is concerned, we should be aware of our responsibility of caring our aged parents.

As far as my educational background is concerned, I am fully qualified for this position.

20. Only in these ways, can we maintain the sustainable development of this planet.

21. It is an undeniable fact that the Internet has resulted in a negative effect on the growth of young people.

22. A foreign girl who is wearing…..has been depicted in the picture above.

23. The Internet has been extensively used in all walks of life, which makes it possible for us to considerably improve our working efficiency.

24. What’s important is that we young people should take an optimistic attitude towards life.

25. What we should do now is to deal with the relationship between the academic study and part-time job in a proper way.

26. It is an undeniable fact that the Internet has become an indispensable part of our life.

27. Confidence means so much to our personal growth that we should …


28. We should take an objective attitude towards the phenomenon prevalent among young people.29. We should be aware of the fact that one’s growth is closely associated with the environment in which he or she lives.

In my opinion, we should be aware of an obvious fact that ……..30. Those who are suffering from the earthquake are badly in need of the help and encouragement.

Those who destroy the environment must be severely punished.

31. We are convinced that the sustainable development of the ecological system can be achieved through our joint efforts.

32. It is an undeniable fact that reading widely benefits us tremendously.

33. I am in favor of the idea that university campus should be open to the tourists.

34. Part-time job offers us a good chance to know more about real life.

35. Compared with the output of March, there is an obvious increase in that of May. Compared with the city life, country life has….

36. We can arrive at the conclusion that… We can conclude that…

37. The best way to protect the environment, I think, is to make some relevant laws and regulations.

38. In my view, some effective measures must be taken to tackle this complicated problem that we are facing today.

39. The family atmosphere will have a tremendous influence on children’s growth.

Exert, result in…

40. Confidence will largely determine whether you can attain your goal.

341. Taking up part-time job enables us to broaden our vision and enrich our life experience.

42. It is estimated that the time spent on the preparation for the coming examination has amounted to 5 hours a day. The theory advanced by the professor proved to be effective in combating the corruption.

43. It can be predicted that greenhouse effect will continue to affect our life in the foreseeable future.

44. You need to take two factors into consideration when seeking for such a child. First of all, this child should be one who comes from the remote areas because I have learned from the newspaper that ……………..

45. Were it left to me to do …………….

46. It is so hard to imagine what our life would be like………………

47. A worldwide campaign should be launched to …………..

48) It can be predicted that ………………….

49) Fortunately, more and more people come to realize that …………….. The raw material is what we are badly in need of.

50) It is important for us to translate book knowledge into real ability.

51) People’s opinions about gala of CCTV vary from person to person. Some …while…. In my view,……

52) As is shown in the table above, the number of the people traveling abroad is on the rise this year due to…..

53) We consider it urgent to do sth.

Teaching job is considered to be an undesirable profession.

54) The social phenomenon reflected by the picture above has aroused our wide concern. Deserve wide concern

The phenomenon reflected by the picture deserves our wide concern.

455) It is advisable for the Chinese parents to give their children more freedom and opportunity to cultivate the ability to solve the problems independently. We consider it advisable to do sth.

56) It is becoming increasingly difficult for college students to find a decent job.

57) As is shown in this chart, there is a sharp decline in the number of…..doing…..

58) The unhealthy information over the network has done a severe harm to the growth of young people.

59) A is indispensable to B.

60) Many wild animals can’t remain alive simply because they have been deprived of the habitats.

61) It is persistence that ensures our success.

62) It is urgent for us to take steps to eliminate the pirated products.

63) In the past few years, there has been a sharp decline in the number of people who……………

64) Personally, I am in favor of the idea that the university campus should be open to the tourists.

65) It is high time that………………

66) Based on the table above, we can see that the number of the graduates taking this exam accounts for 35% of the total.

Make up Occupy

67) In my view, such phenomenon as abusing old father must be condemned by everyone of conscience.

Blame Criticize Condemn Praise

Those who make and sell the pirated products must be condemned by the whole society.


68) In order to curb brain drain, some policies should be made so as to …………………………. The Preferential policy

69) Those who want to be a volunteer in….should sign…..in…..before……

70) Only in this way, can we…………………


① What an impressive cartoon it is!② As is vividly depicted in it, two disabled men are running fast through teamwork although each of them has only one leg.③ Obviously, it is teamwork that makes it possible for them to reach their destinations.

① Simple as it is, what the picture conveys to us is really thought-provoking.② With the development of modern society, competition is becoming increasingly fierce in every field.③ It is impossible for anyone to finish a work all by himself.④ Hence, people in mounting numbers put great emphasis on teamwork.⑤ In fact, it has been universally acknowledged that the spirit of teamwork is the most essential qualification that anyone who wants to achieve success should possess.① Accordingly, it is imperative for us to take some measures to enhance the sense of teamwork in our society.② We should bear in mind that teamwork is of great significance to both our society and ourselves.③ Besides, every one should cultivate the sense of teamwork.④ Only in this way can we achieve success and only in this way can our society become more harmonious to live in.


As is shown in the chart, mobile phone subscriptions grow rapidly from 2000 to 2008.We can also find out that developing countries are the driving force for such a rapid growth. According to the chart, mobile-phone subscription number increased to 8 times from 2000 to 2008, that is from around 0.5 billion to 4 billion, while subscription number of the developed countries only increased twice from around 0.5 billion to 1 billion. I think there are two main reasons for such a great contrast: First of all, developing countries have much larger population than the developed countries. For example, China and India nearly have half of the total population of the world. China has the most mobile-phone users right now, which increased greatly from 2000 to 2008. It is the same in India and other developing countries. Secondly, developing countries have been enjoying strong economic growth in recent years. As a result, people in most developing countries are richer and richer, especially in China. So they can afford to buy such necessities, including mobile-phone, as the price continued to drop greatly in the past years.

6Thus, we can conclude that as economy grows strongly in developing countries, people in these countries can buy more products.



Dear Mary, How are you these days? I am delighted to learn that you will graduate from the university very soon. Now I am writing to put forward some proposals as to your personal choice before graduation. In my opinion, you’d better further your study after graduation because higher degree will greatly increase your competitiveness in the job market in the future. What’s important is that it can broaden your vision and enrich your life experience, which is beneficial to your career development.

At last, I hope that you can find my proposals constructive and I am looking forward to your early response.102 ours,

Li Ming


Dear Sir, I am a tourist from Sweden and I am writing to extend my thanks to Li Ming, a student of the Foreign Language Department of your university. Yesterday when I visited Yuelu Hill, I was attracted by the beautiful scenery and lost myself in the enjoyment of the gracefulness of nature. But upon my arrival back at the hotel, I found my handbag was missing. At eight o’clock, a young man accompanied by a hotel attendant came to my room, with a bag in his hand. At once I recognized it was mine. I thanked him awfully for his kindness. At my insistence, he told me his name when leaving. Deeply moved by his selfless spirit, I am writing this letter to commend his noble deed. Please convey my gratitude to him.132 th new oppoYours respectfully, Terry Soddy




1、主语+动词(S V)

2、主语+动词+宾语(S V O)3、主语+动词+补语(S V C)4、主语+动词+状语(S V A)

5、主语+动词+宾语+状语(S V O A)6、主语+动词+宾语+补语(S V O C)

7、主语+动词+间接宾语+直接宾语(S V Oi Od)




The students are diligently studying.2、人群欢呼起来。 The crowd cheered.3、随身听不好使了。 The walkman doesn't work.4、隔墙有耳。 The wall has ears.5、我给自己伤着了。 I hurt myself 6、志强写了一篇漂亮的作文。 Zhiqiang wrote a beautiful article.7、他是我的好朋友之一。

He is one of the best friends of mine.8、李勇被选为学生会主席。

Li Yong was elected chairman of the Students’ Union.9、中国是个伟大的国家。 China is a great country.10、他住在美国。

He lives in the United States.16、天冷了,树叶黄了。

It is cold, and leaves are turning yellow.17、父母认为他们的孩子是个天才。 The parents thought the child a genius.18、许多外商把中国看成是个巨大的市场。

Many foreign businessmen regard China as a huge market.19、他的夫人给他买了一份漂亮的领带。 His wife bought him a beautiful tie.20、教授给我们看了他的影集。

The professor showed us his photo album.




a. I don’t know her very well. b. He criticized and punished me: not two or three times in the week, nor once or twice in the day, but continually. c. They entered the room, singing and dancing.并列句

并列句由两个或两个以上简单句子组成。通过使用标点符号,并列连词,连接副词等语言手段,将简单句子连接成并列句子。1)并列连词:and, but, or, for, yet, so , nor 2)besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition, also(表示附加) likewise, in the same way, similarly(表示类似)

however, nevertheless, still, nonetheless, otherwise, in contrast, on the other hand(表示对照和转折)

accordingly, consequently, hence, therefore, as a result, for this reason(表示因果关系) thus, thereby, by this means, in this manner(表示手段与结果)

for example, for instance, in fact, in particular, indeed(表示加强语气或举例) meanwhile, then, subsequently, afterwards, earlier, later(表示时间顺序)


A. The book is very good, but it is too expensive for me.

B. Some students are cleaning the window, and some others are sweeping the floor. C.I t was late, thus you must go.



They can’t finish their work without my help, so they came for my help.2、我非常喜欢这部电影,但我的哥哥却很讨厌它。 I am fond of this movie, but my brother doesn't’t like it.3、此外,刘强还学了如何操作电脑。

In addition, Liu Qiang learned how to operate a computer.4、他很聪明,可另一方面,他却出错很多。

He is very intelligent, on the other hand, he made many mistakes.5、他跌倒了,腿骨折了。结果是,他两个月将不能上课。

He fell down and hurt his leg. As a result, he was unable to go to class for two months.6、李娜昨晚参加晚会了,因此没有做功课。

Li Na went to the party yesterday evening, so she didn't’t do her assignments.7、妈妈去商店了,同时,我在家里准备晚餐。

Mother went shopping, meanwhile I was cooking dinner at home.8、她好像不想去参加派对。另外,她的衣着也不够好。

She didn't’t seemed to go to the party, beside, her clothes were not good enough.9、你们班一些同学英语很好,比如,王刚英语说得很棒。

Some students from your class are good at English, for instance, Wang Gang is a very good speaker.10、他一点不介意。实际上,他很高兴。

He didn't’t mind. As a matter of fact, he was very pleased.





That money doesn’t grow on trees should be obvious. It is obvious that money doesn’t grow on trees.2)作动词宾语的名词从句

Everybody knows that money doesn’t grow on trees 3)描写感情的形容词之后的名词从句 I’m sorry that you failed again.(sorry, sure, glad, pleased, sure, certain)4)疑问词引出的名词从句

I don’t know whether he has signed the contract.


Those who do well at university can easily find a job after graduation.7、他告诉了我他没有通过大学英语四级的原因。 He told me the reasons why he had failed in the CET 4.8、我对他什么时候回来不感兴趣。

I am not interested in the time when he will come back.9、我们过多久才能知道他们是否来还是不来? How soon can we know whether he will come or not.10、一些出生于独生子女家庭的孩子似乎较自私。 Some children who are from one-child families



Beginning l In this paper, we focus on the need for l This paper proceeds as follow. l The structure of the paper is as follows. l In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts l To begin with we will provide a brief background on the

Introduction l This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined.

l Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections. l In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non-fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered. Review l This review is followed by an introduction.

l A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2. l In the next section a brief view of the .... is given.

l In the next section, a short review of ... is given with special regard to ...

l Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx. l Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods.

Body l Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance. l Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision-making logic. l Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx l Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding. l Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed in terms of fuzzy time-window l Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the ...

l Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ..and also discusses how to evaluate system performance. l Section 3 describes a new measure of xx. l Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx. l Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.l Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision rules

l The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies. l Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.

l Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set-based approach to cost variance investigation. l Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx. l Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process. l Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.

l Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data. l Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model .. l Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.

l Section 6 illustrate the model with an example. l Various ways of fuzzification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2. l In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model of human DM system l In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a ... scheme must satisfy. l In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is order-dense.

l In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study

currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions. l In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments...

This Section l In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is designed are described. l We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.

Next Section l The next section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements. l However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section. l The three components will be described in the next two section, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.

l We can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following sections. l The next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for arguments based on xx

Summary l This paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration in section 5. l Section 5 summarizes the results of this investigation. l Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research. l Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper. l Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized l The basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn. l Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper.

Chapter 0. Abstract l A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables. l This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures. l This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx. l The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.

l The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision. l The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithms. l The usefulness of xx is also considered. l A brief methodology used in xx is discussed. l The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem. l A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices. l Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified. l The use of the method is discussed and an example is given. l Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique. l This paper analyses problems in

l This paper outlines the functions carried out by ... l This paper includes an illustration of the ... l This paper provides an overview and information useful for approaching l Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated. l The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx l Our proposed model is verified through experimental study. l The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of : xx,xx l The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables. l A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedure

Chapter 1. Introduction Time l Over the course of the past 30 years,.. has emerged form intuitive l Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world l The advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the

l The development of ... is explored

l During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions, l The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years

l There has been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance with the advent of ... l A major concern in ... today is to continue to improve... l A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena. l At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx l Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed. l The pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965]. l To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.

Objective / Goal / Purpose l The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:

l The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non-experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer-aided instruction for xxx. l The paper concerns the development of a xx l The scope of this research lies in l The main theme of the paper is the application of rule-based decision making. l These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit ... l The objectives of the ... operations study are as follows: l The primary purpose/consideration/objective of l The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide l The main objective of such a ... system is to l The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution. l In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements: l In order to take advantage of their similarity

l more research is still required before final goal of ... can be completed l In this trial, the objective is to generate... l for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues l A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx. l For an illustrative purpose, four well-known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx. l A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methods l This illustration points out the need to specify l The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive. l Chapter 2. Literature Review l A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xx l A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decade

l A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.l There is considerable amount of literature on planning

l However, these studies do not provide much attention to undertainty in xx. l Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications. l Many research studies have been carried out on this topic. l Problem of xx draw recently more and more attention of system analysis. l Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of

l Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated. l Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature. l The central issue in all these studies is to

l The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches. l Applied ... techniques to l Characterized the ... system as l Developed an algorithm to l Developed a system called ... which l Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce l Emphasized the need to l Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology l A comprehensive study of the .. has been undertaken l Much work has been reported recently in these filed l Proposed l Presented l State that l Point out that the problem of l Described l Illustrated l Indicated l Has shown / showed l Address l Highlights l A study on ...was done / developed by [] l Previous work, such as [] and [], deal only with l The approach taken by [] is l The system developed by [] consists l A paper relevant to this research was published by [] l []'s model requires consideration of .. l []' model draws attention to evolution in human development l []'s model focuses on... l Little research has been conducted in applying ... to l The published information that is relevant to this research... l This study further shows that l Their work is based on the principle of

l More history of ... can be found in xx et al.[1979]. l Studies have been completed to established l The ...studies indicated that

l Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking.

Problem / Issue / Question l Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects. l Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems l ... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved l Two major problems have yet to be addressed l An unanswered question l This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution. l An additional research issue to be tackled is .... l Some important issues in developing a ... system are discussed l The three prime issues can be summarized: l The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ... l There have been many attempts to l It is expected to be serious barrier to

l It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex problem. l There are several ways to get around this problem. l As difficult as it seems to be, xx is by no means new. l The problem is to recognize xx from a design representation. l A xx problem can trace its roots to xx. l xx [1987] used a heuristic approach to simplify the complexity of the problem.




This Contract is entered into the 5th day of August,2008 between ABC Trading Co., Ltd.,(hereinafter called “Seller”) who agrees to sell; and XYZ Trading Co.,(.,(hereinafter called “Buyer”) who agrees to buy the following goods on the following terms and conditions: ABC 贸易有限公司(以下简称卖方)与XYZ贸易有限公司(以下简称买方)于2008年8月5日签订本合同。双方同意按下列条款出售、购买下列货物:

3. In processing transactions, the manufactures never have title either to the materials or to the finished products.在加工贸易中,厂方对原材料或成品都无所有权。

4. The Appendix hereto shall, through the contract period, be deemed (被认为) to be construed (理解)as part of this Contract.


1. The Parties may, through consultation, make amendments to and revisions of the contract as and when the need arises.对方可在必要时通过协商修改本合同。

3. The Contractor shall, without limiting his or the Employee’s obligations and responsibilities under Clause 20, insure the Works, together with materials and plant for incorporation therein, to the full replacement cost.


例一:The Employer hereby covenants to pay the Contractor in consideration of the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of defects therein the Contract Price or such other sum as may become payable under the provisions of the Contract at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Contract.

例1 Whether the custom of the Port is contrary to this Clause or not, the owner of the goods shall, without interruption, by day and night, including Sundays and holidays (if required by the carrier), supply and take delivery of the goods. Provided that the owner of the goods shall be liable for all losses or damages including demurrage incurred in default on the provisions hereof.不论港口习惯是否与本规定相反,货方都应昼夜的,包括星期日和假日,(如承运人需要),无间断的提供和提取货物,伙房对违反本款规定所引起的所有损失或损坏,包括滞期应负担赔偿责任。

例2“Technical Documents” means the data and the information specified in Appendix 1 hereto, such as engineering, manufacturing and original information relating to the manufacture and maintenance of the Contract Products, including drawings, blueprints, design sheets, materialspecifications, photographs, photostats and general data, and design and their specifications relating to manufacturing equipment, tools and facilities. Provided that the above-mentioned information shall be such information as is only available to Party B and applicable to the business operation of Party A under this Contract.“技术资料”系指列于附件1与制造和维修合同产品有关的工程、制造及原始资料,包括与制造设备、工具和装置有关的图纸、蓝本、设计图表、材料规格、照片、影音资料和一般资料设计及其说明书等,但上述资料仅限于乙方拥有的资料和甲方用于本合同业务活动的资料。例1 This Law is hereby formulated and prepared in order to develop the foreign trade, maintain the foreign trade order and promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy. Foreign trade mentioned herein shall cover the import and export of goods, technology and the international trade in services.为了发展对外贸易,维护对外贸易秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的健康发展,兹制定本法,本法所称对外贸易是指货物进出口、技术进出口和国际服务贸易。

例1 When existing Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, Chinese-foreign cooperative joint ventures and wholly foreign-owned enterprises (hereinafter referred to as “enterprises with foreign investment”) apply to reorganize themselves into a company, the enterprises with foreign investment shall have a record of making profits for the recent three consecutive years.参考译文:


例1“Tests on Completion” means such tests specified in the Contract or otherwise agreed by and between the Engineer and the Contractor as shall be made by the Contractor before the Employer takes over the Works or any section or part thereof.竣工检验是指合同规定的或由工程师与承包人另行规定的检验,这些检验是由承包人在业主接受工程或工程任何部分、区段之前进行的。

The Borrower shall pay for the account of the Banks a commitment fee of one half of one percent (0.5%) per annum on the Total Loan Commitment. The commitment fee shall be paid from the date of the conclusion of the Contract (inclusive) to the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date (but excluding the day in question). The commitment fee shall quarterly be paid from the date in the third month thereafter to the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date.参考译文:


The Defects Liability Certificate for the Works shall, within 28 days after the expiration of theDefects Liability Period, be issued by the Engineer, or, if different defects liability periods become applicable to different Section or parts of the Permanent Works, the expiration of the latest such period, or if, pursuant to Clause 82, any works instructed are completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer, the Defects Liability Certificate therefor shall be issued by the Engineer as soon as possible.参考译文:工程的缺陷责任证书应由工程师在缺陷责任期终止后28天内颁发,或者,如果不同的缺陷责任期适用永久工程的不同区段或部分时,则在最后一个缺陷责任期终止或根据第82条,在任何按指示进行的工程已完成并达到工程师满意之后尽快签发。

A contract for supply and use of electricity refers to a contract whereby the supplier of electricity supplies electricity to the user of electricity, and the user of electricity pays the electric fee.供用电合同是供电人向用电人供电,用电人支付电费的合同

The board meeting shall be called and presided over by the Chairman. Should the Chairman be absent, the vice-Chairmen shall, in principle, call and preside over the board meeting.董事会应由董事长召集并主持,若董事长缺席,原则上应由副董事长召集主持

Now Therefore, in consideration of the premises and the covenants herein, contained, the parties hereto agree as follows:兹以上述各点和契约所载条款为约因,订约双方协议如下:

IN THE PRESENCE OF the parties hereto have hereunder set their respective hands and seals:作为协议事项的证据,订约双方各自签名盖章如下

Unless otherwise expressly specified in the Contract, the Engineer shall have no authority to relieve the Contractor of any of his obligations under the Contract.


In Testimony Whereof, this Contract shall come into effect after the Contract in question is made and signed by the Parties hereto in duplicate, and either Party will hold one copy.本合同由双方代表签字后生效,一式两份,双方各执一份

The Engineer shall have authority to issue to the Contractor, from time to time, such supplementary Drawings and instructions as shall be necessary for the purpose of the proper and adequate execution and completion of the works and the remedying of any defects therein.工程师有权随时向承包人发出为合理和恰当施工,竣工及修补工程中的缺陷所必需的补充图纸和指示。

The seller shall guarantee all shipments to conform to samples submitted with regard to quality 卖方必须保证交货质量同其所提供的样品一样。

Said sample shall be treated as an inter part of this contract. The quality of the goods delivered shall not be lower than the sample.该样品应视为本合同不可分割的部分,所交货物的品质不得低于样品

For details, see the specification and Design attached hereto, which shall constitute and integral and equally authentic part of this contract.品质规格:相见所附说明书和图样。该项所附说明书和图样应视构成本合同的组成部分,并且是有同等效力。

2.型号PMC9-71323,颜色兰,黄,白平均搭配为每打小/ 3,中/6,,大/3 PMC9-71323,Blue, Yellow and White equally assorted .S/3, M/6, L/3 per dozen.

5. In case any dispute and /or claim arise in connection with the patent, utility model, trade mark, design or copyright, seller reserves every and all rights to cancel, make null and void this contract at his discretion, and to hold himself free from any liability arising therefrom; buyer shall be responsible for every loss and or damage caused thereby.如因专利,新型,商标,设计,或版权,引起纠纷或索赔事情,卖方有权撤销合同或是合同无效,并不负因此引起的任何责任,买方应负责因此而招致的一切损失和损害

制造商必须保证所交货物的质量完全符合同规定,若发现品质不符,应予免费调换。 Maker shall guarantee that material supplied are strictly in accordance with the contract and that in the event of any material not in accordance with the contract, replacement shall be made free of charge


The seller shall not be responsible for any infringement ,with regard to patent .utility model ,trade mark ,design or copyright ,whether in the Buyers country or in other places.

The seller has the option of delivering 5% more or less of the contracted quantity.买方有权决定按合同素、数量增减5%

Should the weight ascertained as a result of reweighting the goods at the port of destination differ from the bill of Lading weight by up to one percent more or less, the bill of Lading weight shall be deemed final for the settlement of accounts between the parties.在目的港对货物再次所得的重量,如与提单重量相差仅1%增减,则提单重量作为上方结算的最后依据。

Net shipping weight; loss in weight exceeding (or over)5% to be for Seller’s account.以装运净重为准,如重量损耗超过5%,超过部分由卖方负担。

When the Seller delivers to the buyer a quantity of goods larger than he contracted to sell, the buyer may accept the goods included in the contract and reject the rest, or he may reject the whole. If the buyer accepts the whole of the goods so delivered he must pay for them at the contract rate.卖方交付买方的数据,如多于契约所订出售所数量,卖方可接受契约所定数量而拒绝其余部分,也可拒绝全部货物。如买方接受所交全部货物,则必须按契约所定价格交付货款。



Goods to be packed in wooden cases each of 15kg net,with double wax-paper,4 packets to one case.


Goods shall be packed in craft paper bags of 50kg net each ,wrapped with gunny bags.


It is mutually agreed that the goods are subject to the Inspection certificate of Quality and Inspection certificate of Quantity issued by China Import and Export at the port of shipment. The certificate shall be binding on both parter.


The certificate of quantity issued by China Entry--Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau at the port of shipment is to be find.


Cotton is to be weighted in Shanghai before sampling under the supervision of the Cotton controller appointed by seller, weighing shall take place not later than 21 days after completion of landing on wharf at the port of destination.


We certify that we have inspected the goods and equipment covered by the warrant and that it conforms to accepted standards of quality, including any specifications forming a part of the descriptions


We certify that the following materials have been inspected and are in accordance with our opinion based upon that the report of our inspectors and experience and judgement has been accepted under the instructions provided.


Inspection on quality quantity , packing and weight of the contracted cargo shall be performedat the time of loading at Huangpu berth by independent inspector appointed by the buyer and acceptable to seller .The inspectors certificate of quality , quantity , packing and weight shall be find, and inspection free and charge shall be for sellers account.

Seller reserves the right to adjust the contracted price, if prior to delivery, there is any variation in the cost of Labor or raw material or component parts 货物在装运前,若人工费用,原材料或零部件成本有所变动,卖方有权调整合同规定的价格。

Should the parity of Pound Sterling, which now stg.$1.00= US$..., be different on the day of payment, the price will be adjusted in accordance with the corresponding change.若以英镑计价,现在1英镑= 。。。美元,如支付日给汇率有变化,货物价格应按变动的汇率,相应予以调整。

Less 3% commission to be shown on separate statement only 。



The buyer shall pay the total value to the seller in advance by T/T(M/T or D/D ) not later than (D/P D/A)1,1,2009.


Upon first presentation, the buyers shall pay against documentary drawn by the sellers at sight . The shipping documents are to be delivered against payment only.3凭全额发票金额的、保兑的、不可撤销的、可转让的即期信用证。信用证应于装运期前30天送达卖方,其议付有效期至上述装运期后15点在中国有效。

By 100% confirmed, irrevocable, transferable sight L/C to reach the sellers 30 days before the date of shipment and to remain valid for negotiation in china till the 15th day after the final date of shipment. st考4以不可撤销的信用证,凭卖方开具的见票后90天的跟单汇票议付,有效期为装运期后15天在中国到期。该信用证须于合同规定的装运月份前30天到达卖方。

By irrevocable L/C available by sellers documentary draft at 90 days after sight, to be valid for negotiation in china until 15 days after the data of shipment, The L/C must reach the sellers 30 days before the contracted month of shipment


60% of the value of goods by irrevocable sight L/C at sight and remaining 40% on collections basis, D/P at 30 days after sight .The full set of shipping documents are to be delivered to the Buyers until full payment of invoice value is made.

6Buyer shall produce in favor of seller an irrevocable and unconditional L/G to be issued by aprime bank in Hongkong, guaranteeing the payment of each installment and deferred payment amount and interest thereon as set forth in the above clause (1),(2) and (3), within five months from the date hereof.买方通过香港一流银行开立以卖方为受益人,不可撤销,无条件的保证函,保证按上述12 3项规定,每期延期付款的金额以及利息自规定日期5个月支付。


In three equal monthly installment (shipments/lots) each of 20 tons(of 20 tons each ) beginning (commercing) from (with/in) May.

2 货物约等分两批装运,每批间隔25天

In two approximately equal shipments required 25days apart at intervals of 25days.3卖方应保证每个晴天工作日装700吨进入全部货仓,或按可供货仓数量的比例装货。每日的速遣费为600美元,滞期费为1200美元

Sellers guarantee to load 700M/T per WD(weather working days ) for all hatches ,or prorate according to avail ability of hatches .Dispatch at US600 per day and Demurrage at US 1200 per day.


Shipment effected under this contract shall be promptly informed to the buyer by able.5.提单日期应作为装运期,若延迟交货,买方得撤销合同,并索赔因违约所造成的损失。

The date of Bill of lading shall be considered as the date of shipment .In the event of delay in shipment, buyer may cancel the contract and claim damages for breach of the contract.

1.由卖方按发票金额加10%投保一切险和战争险,其超过金额的保费由买方负担。 Tb be effected by the seller for invoice amount/value plus 10%,any additional premium for insurance coverage over 110% of the invoice amount shall be borne by the buyers.


Insurance is to be covered by the seller on behalf of the buyer for 110% of invoice value of CIF against All Risks and War Risk as per relevant Ocean Marine Cargo Clause of PICC dated 1st January 1981.The insurance premium shall be for the buyer’s account .3.If buyer fails to carry out (perform) any of the terms of this or any other contract with seller, or in the event (in case of) death, bankruptcy or insolvency of buyer, dissolution or partnership of buyer or non-payment for any shipment, seller has the right to cancel this and/or any other contract with buyer or to postphone the shipment , or to stop the goods in transit ,and buyer is bound to reimburse seller for any loss sustained therefore.若买方未能履行与卖方所订本合同或其他合同的任何条款,或在买方死亡、倒闭、解散、无支付能力的情况下,卖方有权撤销本合同或其他合同或延期交货,或截留运输中的货物,买方应对卖方因此而遭受的损失予以补偿。


In consideration of the exclusive right herein granted, Distributor shall not directly or indirectly purchase, import, sell, distribute or otherwise deal in any products competitive with or similar to products in Territory , and seller shall not offer, sell or export procucts to Territory through other channel than Distributor during the effective period of this Agreement.以授予专营权为约因,在合同有效期内,包销商在包销地区内,不得直接、间接购入、输入、销售或经销与包销商品具有竞争性的或类似的商品,也不得以其他方式经营这类商品,买卖方也不得通过包销商以外

Distributor shall not sell or export, nor cause any other person, firm or corporation in Territory to sell or export Products outside Territory during the effective period of this Agreement 在本合同有效期内,包销商不得将包销商品销售或输出到包销区域外,也不得将包销商品由包销区内的任何人、商人或公司销售或输出到包销区域外

Distributor agrees that it will not disclose at any time any confidential information transmitted to it by seller, including but not limited to trade secrets, customer’s lists, customer’s information and credit or financial information, to any person, firm or corporation other than in the course of the performance its duties hereunder.除了履行本合同规定的责任外,包销商不得在任何时候将卖方提供给它的秘密资料泄露给任何人、商号或公司,秘密资料包括但不限于贸易秘密,客户名单,客户资料,资信报以及财务报告等

Agent shall forward immediately to Principal every order received by it, together with all specifications, if any, for acceptance or rejection by Principal. Upon the acceptance of order by Principal , Principal issues a sale note stipulating necessary terms and conditions on it as may be required case by case, and sales are executed in accordance with the said terms and conditions.代理人收到订单后应连同所有规格明细单(如有的话),立刻交委托人,以供研究决定是否接受订单,一经接受委托人应立即出售货单,列明售货条款,以供客户履约成交


All split-type Air Conditioner assembly by Party B shall be shipped to foreign buyers designated by Party A. The relevant freight and insurance premium shall be borne by Party A.

2.次品率不得超过5%。The rate of substandard products should not exceed 5%.


The overall processing fee is US$5.00 per unit ,including charge for labor ,packing depreciation of machinery storage and transport.

Party A shall supply Party B with 100 special sewing machines(for details see the attached list) with values at HK$220,000. Party B shall compensate Party A for the amounts plus freight and interest at ….% per annual before the end of 2008 with the proceeds of the finished products, ladies’ Blouses, delivered to Party B. Party B shall make for Party A each month from January 2008 approximately 2,000 to 3,000 dozens ladies’ Blouses according to the supplied samples by Party A.甲方应向乙方供应特种缝纫机100台(细节详见附表)总值22万港元,对这项价款连同运费加上按年利率%计算的利息,乙方应于2008年底前用交付给甲方女衬衣成衣偿还甲方,乙方应自2008年每年为甲方按来样生产女装衬衣约2000至3000打。

1) Party A shall undertake the responsibility of assembly, installation, start-up and test run of the equipment and machinery within the respectively specified periods.

2) Party A shall warrant that if the equipment fails to operate normally due to faulty manufacture, Party A shall send technicians to effect repairs or replace the defective articles or parts with all expenses to be borne by Party A.